Rylee A. Dionigi, Maria Horne, Anne-Marie Hill, and Mary Ann Kluge
Increasing the physical activity (PA) levels of inactive older adults to promote healthy aging and to reduce preventable health conditions is a public health priority. However, there remains uncertainty on what constitutes the most important components and characteristics of effective PA interventions for older adults, and previous research has largely focused on the cognitive and behavioral strategies they adopt to increase uptake and adherence to PA. This narrative review puts forward the novel idea, with supporting evidence, that the strength, quality, and collaborative nature of the professional–client relationship, a concept drawn from the field of psychotherapy and known as therapeutic alliance, may be a vital and foundational element of effective PA interventions. This article will offer a new understanding, and a new direction of research to aid the future conceptualization, design, and development of interventions that aim to increase the PA levels of older adults.
Ryota Akagi, Yuta Nomura, Chiho Kawashima, Mari Ito, Kosuke Oba, Yuma Tsuchiya, Geoffrey A. Power, and Kosuke Hirata
This study investigated associations of fatigue resistance determined by an exercise-induced decrease in neuromuscular power with prefatigue neuromuscular strength and power of the knee extensors in 31 older men (65–88 years). A fatigue task consisted of 50 consecutive maximal effort isotonic knee extensions (resistance: 20% of prefatigue isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque) over a 70° range of motion. The average of the peak power values calculated from the 46th to 50th contractions during the fatigue task was normalized to the prefatigue peak power value, which was defined as neuromuscular fatigue resistance. Neuromuscular fatigue resistance was negatively associated with prefatigue maximal power output (r = −.530) but not with prefatigue maximal voluntary contraction torque (r = −.252). This result highlights a trade-off between prefatigue maximal power output and neuromuscular fatigue resistance, implying that an improvement in maximal power output might have a negative impact on neuromuscular fatigue resistance.
Dominika Bhatia, Nancy M. Salbach, Olayinka Akinrolie, Kyla Alsbury-Nealy, Renato Barbosa dos Santos, Parvin Eftekhar, Hal Loewen, Erica Nekolaichuk, Chelsea Scheller, Rebecca Schorr, Stephanie Scodras, and Ruth Barclay
Limited community ambulation, defined as independent mobility outside the home, predicts adverse outcomes in older adults. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine outdoor community ambulation intervention effectiveness in older adults. We searched six databases until October 2021. Studies with an evaluative research objective, older adult population, and outdoor community ambulation interventions were eligible. After reviewing 23,172 records, five studies were included. The meta-analysis found no significant difference in walking endurance and depression outcomes between outdoor community ambulation and comparison interventions. For outcomes not suitable for meta-analysis, studies showed no significant difference in walking activity, anxiety, and general and health-related quality of life, and possible improvements in gait speed and lower extremity function and strength. Most evidence was of low to very low certainty. Considering the limited evidence base, the design, implementation, and evaluation of outdoor community ambulation interventions in older adults should be prioritized in primary research.
Maria Cecília Marinho Tenório, Christianne Coelho-Ravagnani, Daniel Umpierre, Douglas Roque Andrade, Roseanne Autran, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Fabiana Vieira Santos Azevedo Cavalcante, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Alex Antonio Florindo, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Grégore Iven Mielke, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Lorena Lima Magalhães, Paula Fabricio Sandreschi, Sofia Wolker Manta, Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira, Pedro Curi Hallal, and on behalf of the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines Working Group*
Background: This article describes the process and methods used in the development of the first ever Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods: The steering committee established 8 working groups based on other guidelines and the Brazilian agenda for public health and physical activity (PA) promotion: (1) understanding PA; (2) children up to 5 years; (3) children and youth (6–17 y); (4) adults; (5) older adults (60 years and above); (6) physical education at school; (7) pregnant and postpartum women; and (8) people with disabilities. Working groups were formed to (1) synthesize the literature on each topic; (2) conduct workshops with stakeholders, health professionals, researchers, and the public; and (3) prepare a draft chapter for open online consultation. Results: The document provides guidance for the population on the benefits of being active and recommendations regarding the amount (frequency, intensity, and duration) of PA recommended across all chapters. It also includes information on supporting networks for PA. Conclusions: The PA guidelines are widely accessible in Portuguese, including versions in English, Spanish, audiobook, and Braille, and will assist policy makers and professionals from several sectors to promote PA. The ultimate goal is to increase population levels of PA in Brazil.
Daniel Umpierre, Christianne Coelho-Ravagnani, Maria Cecília Tenório, Douglas Roque Andrade, Roseanne Autran, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Fabiana Vieira Santos Azevedo Cavalcante, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Alex Antonio Florindo, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Sofia Wolker Manta, Grégore Iven Mielke, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Lorena Lima Magalhães, Paula Fabricio Sandreschi, Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira, Pedro Curi Hallal, and on behalf of the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines Working Group*
Background: This article presents the recommendations from the Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A steering committee composed of a chair, 6 experts in physical activity, and representatives from the Ministry of Health/Brazil, Pan American Health Organization, Brazilian Society of Physical Activity and Health designed the guidelines, which was implemented by 8 working groups, as follows: (1) understanding physical activity, (2) children up to 5 years old, (3) children and youth from 6 to 17 years old, (4) adults, (5) older adults (60 years and above), (6) physical education at school, (7) pregnant and postpartum women, and (8) people with disabilities. The methodological steps included evidence syntheses, hearings with key stakeholders, and public consultation. Results: Across 8 chapters, the guidelines provide definitions of physical activity and sedentary behavior, informing target groups on types of physical activity, dosage (frequency, intensity, and duration), benefits, and supporting network for physical activity adoption. The guidelines are openly available in Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Braille and in audio versions, with a supplementary guide for health professionals and decision makers, and a report about the preparation and references. Conclusions: The Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population provide evidence-based recommendations, being a public-directed resource to contribute to the physical activity promotion in Brazil.
Shinji Yamaguchi, Yujiro Kawata, Yuka Murofushi, Nobuto Shibata, and Tsuneyoshi Ota
This study examined the stress coping strategies of athletes with high psychological vulnerability. The participants were 487 university athletes (mean age = 19.8 years, SD = 0.88, 153 women). Data were collected using the Vulnerability Scale for University Athletes and General Coping Questionnaire and analyzed by conducting a multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant relationships between vulnerability and coping strategies (r = .11−.39). Vulnerability was most strongly related to the emotional support seeking aspect of emotion-oriented coping (r = .39). There was no significant difference in cognitive reinterpretation (r = .07). Vulnerability had a stronger relationship with emotion-oriented than problem-oriented coping, and high (vs. low) vulnerability athletes had significantly higher emotion-oriented-coping scores. These results suggest that vulnerable athletes need to be provided with appropriate emotional support to cope with stressful situations, as they rely heavily on a stress management strategy focusing on emotion regulation.
Kate Oldridge-Turner, Margarita Kokkorou, Fiona Sing, Knut-Inge Klepp, Harry Rutter, Arnfinn Helleve, Bryony Sinclair, Louise Meincke, Giota Mitrou, Martin Wiseman, and Kate Allen
Background: Considering the large health burden of physical inactivity, effective physical activity promotion is a “best buy” for noncommunicable disease and obesity prevention. The MOVING policy framework was developed to promote and monitor government policy actions to increase physical activity as part of the EU Horizon 2020 project “Confronting Obesity: Co-creating policy with youth (CO-CREATE).” Method: A scanning exercise, documentary review of key international policy documents, and thematic analysis of main recommendations were conducted. Themes were reviewed as part of a consultation with physical activity experts. Results: There were 6 overarching policy framework areas: M—make opportunities and initiatives that promote physical activity in schools, the community, and sport and recreation; O—offer physical activity opportunities in the workplace and training in physical activity promotion across multiple professions; V—visualize and enact structures and surroundings that promote physical activity; I—implement transport infrastructure and opportunities that support active societies; N—normalize and increase physical activity through public communication that motivates and builds behavior change skills; and G—give physical activity training, assessment, and counseling in health care settings. Conclusions: The MOVING framework can identify policy actions needed, tailor options suitable for populations, and assess whether approaches are sufficiently comprehensive.