A review and synthesis of the literature on the learning and development of motor skills supports the postulation that whether a motor skill can be deemed fundamental is dependent on the collective presence of three conditions: (i) uniqueness to the movement pattern and/or outcome; (ii) near universality of the functional outcome in the healthy population; (iii) capacity to act as an antecedent influence supporting generalization to a large and broad set of perceptual-motor skills. Within this framework, it is proposed that the infant motor development sequence underpinning upright posture (e.g., sitting, bipedal standing), locomotion (e.g., walking, running), and object-interaction (e.g., grasping) represents the minimum set of fundamental motor skills from which all other skills evolve with over the lifespan. This position is in contrast to the views of many students of motor development and learning who describe numerous skills that typically emerge in the ∼2- to 18-year-old range as fundamental but do not meet the criteria outlined here to be fundamental. It is proposed that these be labeled as core developmental activities having a more restricted but still practically relevant influence on the acquisition of and generalization to other motor skills.
Dirk Krombholz, Luca Daniel, Peter Leinen, Thomas Muehlbauer, and Stefan Panzer
The main purpose of this study was to determine the covariation of anthropometric parameters and the center of pressure (CoP) of young soccer players. Sub-elite young male players between 16 and 17 years (N = 42) were instructed to perform single-leg balance tasks under different conditions: static and dynamic balance on firm and foam ground. Single-leg balance was measured with a Kistler force plate. The measures of postural control were the CoP displacement in anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions. Further, the following anthropometric variables were assessed: body height, body weight, foot length, and foot width. Results indicated only two small-sized correlations between body height/weight and the CoP measures. The covariation between body height, body weight, and the CoP measures for the single-leg stance in young male sub-elite soccer players was less than 10%.
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Sebastian Miranda-Marquez, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Damian Chandia-Poblete, Camila Mella-Garcia, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Astrid Von Oetinger, Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Sebastian Peña, Cristobal Cuadrado, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Celis-Morales, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso, and Andrea Cortínez-O’Ryan
Background: The study summarizes the findings of the 2018 Chilean Report Card (RC) on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Adolescents and compares the results with the first Chilean RC and with other countries from the Global Matrix 3.0. Methods: A Research Work Group using a standardized methodology from the Global Matrix 3.0 awarded grades for 13 PA-related indicators based on the percentage of compliance for defined benchmarks. Different public data sets, government reports, and papers informed the indicators. Results: The grades assigned were for (1) “behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels”: overall PA, D−; organized sport participation, D−; active play, INC; and active transportation, F; (2) “factors associated with cardiometabolic risk”: sedentary behavior, C−; overweight and obesity, F; fitness, D; sleep, INC; and (3) “factors that influence PA”: family and peers, F; school, D; inclusion, INC; community and built environment, B; government strategies and investments, B−. Conclusions: Chile’s grades remained low compared with the first RC. On the positive side, Chile is advancing in environmental and policy aspects. Our findings indicate that the implementation of new strategies should be developed through collaboration between different sectors to maximize effective investments for increasing PA and decreasing sedentary time among children and adolescents in Chile.
Sathvik Namburar, William Checkley, Oscar Flores-Flores, Karina M. Romero, Katherine Tomaino Fraser, Nadia N. Hansel, Suzanne L. Pollard, and GASP Study Investigators
Background: The authors sought to examine physical activity patterns among children with and without asthma in 2 peri-urban communities in Lima, Peru, to identify socioeconomic and demographic risk factors for physical inactivity and examine the relationship between asthma and physical activity. Methods: The authors measured mean steps per day in 114 children (49 with asthma and 65 without) using pedometers worn over a 1-week period. They also used the 3-day physical activity recall to determine the most common activities carried out by children. Results: The authors found that 84.2% of the children did not meet the daily international physical activity recommendations. Girls took significantly fewer mean steps per day as compared with boys (2258 fewer steps, 95% confidence interval, 1042–3474), but no other factors, including asthma status, showed significant differences in the mean daily steps. Mean daily steps were positively associated with higher socioeconomic status among girls, and current asthma had a larger inverse effect on daily steps in boys when compared with girls. Conclusion: Physical activity levels were below recommended guidelines in all children. There is a need for policy and neighborhood-level interventions to address low physical activity levels among Peruvian youth. Special focus should be given to increasing the physical activity levels in girls.
Christopher C. Moore, Aston K. McCullough, Elroy J. Aguiar, Scott W. Ducharme, and Catrine Tudor-Locke
Background: The authors conducted a scoping review as a first step toward establishing harmonized (ie, consistent and compatible), empirically based best practices for validating step-counting wearable technologies. Purpose: To catalog studies validating step-counting wearable technologies during treadmill ambulation. Methods: The authors searched PubMed and SPORTDiscus in August 2019 to identify treadmill-based validation studies that employed the criterion of directly observed (including video recorded) steps and cataloged study sample characteristics, protocol details, and analytical procedures. Where reported, speed- and wear location–specific mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values were tabulated. Weighted median MAPE values were calculated by wear location and a 0.2-m/s speed increment. Results: Seventy-seven eligible studies were identified: most had samples averaging 54% (SD = 5%) female and 27 (5) years of age, treadmill protocols consisting of 3 to 5 bouts at speeds of 0.8 (0.1) to 1.6 (0.2) m/s, and reported measures of bias. Eleven studies provided MAPE values at treadmill speeds of 1.1 to 1.8 m/s; their weighted median MAPE values were 7% to 11% for wrist-worn, 1% to 4% for waist-worn, and ≤1% for thigh-worn devices. Conclusions: Despite divergent study methodologies, the authors identified common practices and summarized MAPE values representing device step-count accuracy during treadmill walking. These initial empirical findings should be further refined to ultimately establish harmonized best practices for validating wearable technologies.
Geoffrey M. Hudson and Kyle Sprow
Kwok W. Ng, Gorden Sudeck, Adilson Marques, Alberto Borraccino, Zuzana Boberova, Jana Vasickova, Riki Tesler, Sami Kokko, and Oddrun Samdal
Background: Regular physical activity and doing well in school are important for growing adolescents. In this study, the associations between physical activity and perceived school performance (PSP) are examined together. Methods: Young adolescents from 42 countries (n = 193,949) in Europe and Canada were examined for associations between self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and PSP. Multinominal analyses were conducted with 0 to 2 days of MVPA and below average PSP as reference categories. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported for pooled data and individual countries after controlling for family affluence scale. Results: Girls had better PSP than boys, yet more boys participated in daily MVPA than girls. The associations between PSP and MVPA were inverted U shaped. The strongest association for very good PSP was among young adolescents who reported 5 to 6 days MVPA (odds ratios = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–2.4) after controlling for family affluence scale. Conclusions: Young adolescents with average or better PSP took part in at least 3 days of MVPA in a week, suggesting that participating in some MVPA was positively associated with PSP. More days of MVPA in a week, especially for young adolescents with below average PSP, would be beneficial for health and school performance.
Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan
Locker rooms operate as pivotal access points to physical activity across sports, physical education, and fitness facilities. However, locker rooms are predicated on cis-heterosexual assumptions that can be isolating to LGBTQ+ individuals. Using an online cross-sectional survey, LGBTQ+ adults (N = 1,067) were asked open-response questions about their past and present locker-room experiences. The resulting texts were independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis and compared. All discrepancies were discussed with and rectified by a third researcher who acted as a critical peer. The results present distinct experiences across three intersecting aspects of embodiment: self-conscious—“I hate(d) being seen,” sexual transgression, and gender transgression. The findings provide insight into how harmful LGBTQ+ stereotypes influence locker-room experiences and support the redesign of locker rooms to challenge the binary organization of these spaces.
Maureen R. Weiss
Children and youth participate in physical activities to develop and demonstrate physical competence, attain social acceptance and approval, and experience enjoyment. Satisfying these motives enhances interest in sustaining physical activity, which contributes to improved motor skills, self-confidence, social relationships, and other positive outcomes. My essay explores motor skill development and youth physical activity through a social psychological lens and the benefits of integrating scientific knowledge from our respective fields to inform research and professional practice. Motor development and sport psychology researchers can collaborate to address critical issues related to motor and perceived competence and physical activity. I recommend five ways for integrating knowledge: (1) applying social psychological theory to guide research questions, (2) using more longitudinal designs, (3) using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods, (4) designing studies on physical literacy, and (5) employing a positive youth development (PYD) approach for improving motor and social-emotional skills. These efforts can assist teachers, coaches, and parents in creating opportunities for youth to learn and improve fundamental motor and sport skills and to achieve feelings of competence, autonomy, relatedness, and joy for motivating a lifetime of physical activity.
Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse
Moral identity and moral disengagement have been linked with doping likelihood. However, experiments testing the temporal direction of these relationships are absent. The authors conducted one cross-sectional and two experimental studies investigating the conjunctive effects of moral identity and moral disengagement on doping likelihood (or intention). Dispositional moral identity was inversely (marginally), and doping moral disengagement, positively, associated with doping intention (Study 1). Manipulating situations to amplify opportunities for moral disengagement increased doping likelihood via anticipated guilt (Study 2). Moreover, dispositional moral identity (Study 2) and inducing moral identity (Study 3) were linked with lower doping likelihood and attenuated the relationship between doping moral disengagement and doping likelihood. However, the suppressing effect of moral identity on doping likelihood was overridden when opportunities for moral disengagement were amplified. These findings support multifaceted antidoping efforts, which include simultaneously enhancing athlete moral identity and personal responsibility alongside reducing social opportunities for moral disengagement.