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Association Between Sleep Time and Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Biomarkers Is Mediated by Abdominal Obesity Among Adolescents

Augusto César Ferreira De Moraes, Vanessa Cassia Medeiros-Oliveira, Katie Burford, Beatriz D. Schaan, Katia Bloch, Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho, Felipe Vogt Cureau, and Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira

Objectives: Movement behaviors and abdominal obesity are associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers. However, the role of waist circumference as a mediating factor is still unknown. Thus, our aims were to (1) test the associations between 24-hour movement behavior variables (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep), abdominal obesity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers; and (2) investigate whether abdominal obesity had a mediating effect between the investigated associations. Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study included 3591 adolescents (aged 12–17 y) from 4 Brazilian cities. Waist circumference (in centimeters; at half the distance between the iliac crest and at the lower costal margin), 24-hour movement behaviors (validated questionnaire), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and adiponectin (serum plasma) were evaluated. We used multiple mediation regression models (95% confidence interval) to determine if waist circumference mediated the association between 24-hour movement behaviors and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. Results: The results revealed that screen time and moderate to vigorous physical activity were not associated with pro- or anti-inflammatory biomarkers. However, sleep duration (in hours per day) was negatively associated with pro- (C-reactive protein, β = −0.08; 95% confidence interval, −0.38 to −0.02) and anti- (adiponectin, β = −0.31; 95% confidence interval, −2.13 to −0.12) inflammatory biomarkers. Our results also showed that waist circumference mediated the association between sleep duration and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (2.7%), and adiponectin (2.8%). Conclusion: Sleep duration was inversely associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and these relations were mediated by abdominal obesity. Therefore, adolescents having healthy sleep can have implications for reducing waist circumference and inflammatory indicators.

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The Epidemiology of Domain-Specific Physical Activity in New Zealand Adults: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey

Ryan Gage, Anja Mizdrak, Justin Richards, Adrian Bauman, Melissa Mcleod, Rhys Jones, Alistair Woodward, and Caroline Shaw

Background: Surveillance of domain-specific physical activity (PA) helps to target interventions to promote PA. We examined the sociodemographic correlates of domain-specific PA in New Zealand adults. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 13,887 adults completed the International PA Questionnaire–long form in 2019/20. Three measures of total and domain-specific (leisure, travel, home, and work) PA were calculated: (1) weekly participation, (2) mean weekly metabolic energy equivalent minutes (MET-min), and (3) median weekly MET-min among those who undertook PA. Results were weighted to the New Zealand adult population. Results: The average contribution of domain-specific activity to total PA was 37.5% for work activities (participation = 43.6%; median participating MET-min = 2790), 31.9% for home activities (participation = 82.2%; median participating MET-min = 1185), 19.4% for leisure activities (participation = 64.7%; median participating MET-min = 933), and 11.2% for travel activities (participation = 64.0%; median MET-min among participants = 495). Women accumulated more home PA and less work PA than men. Total PA was higher in middle-aged adults, with diverse patterns by age within domains. Māori accumulated less leisure PA than New Zealand Europeans but higher total PA. Asian groups reported lower PA across all domains. Higher area deprivation was negatively associated with leisure PA. Sociodemographic patterns varied by measure. For example, gender was not associated with total PA participation, but men accumulated higher MET-min when taking part in PA than women. Conclusions: Inequalities in PA varied by domain and sociodemographic group. These results should be used to inform interventions to improve PA.

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Moving Toward the Inclusion of Step-Based Metrics in Physical Activity Guidelines and Surveillance

Jacqueline L. Mair, Elroy J. Aguiar, Emmanuel Stamatakis, and Sarah M. Edney

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Reducing Sedentary Behavior and Increasing Physical Activity Among Low Active, Underserved Adults: A Staircase Approach

Scherezade K. Mama, Erica G. Soltero, and Rodney P. Joseph

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The Potential Impact of Physical Activity on the Burden of Osteoarthritis and Low Back Pain in Australia: A Systematic Review of Reviews and Life Table Analysis

Mary Njeri Wanjau, Holger Möller, Fiona Haigh, Andrew Milat, Rema Hayek, Peta Lucas, and J. Lennert Veerman

Objective: The objectives were (1) to establish the strength of the association between incident cases of osteoarthritis (OA) and low back pain (LBP), and physical activity (PA) and to assess the likelihood of the associations being causal; and (2) to quantify the impact of PA on the burden of OA and LBP in Australia. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review in EMBASE and PubMed databases from January 01, 2000, to April 28, 2020. We used the Bradford Hill viewpoints to assess causality. We used a proportional multistate life table model to estimate the impact of changes in the PA levels on OA and LBP burdens for the 2019 Australian population (aged ≥ 20 y) over their remaining lifetime. Results: We found that both OA and LBP are possibly causally related to physical inactivity. Assuming causality, our model projected that if the 2025 World Health Organization global target for PA was met, the burden in 25 years’ time could be reduced by 70,000 prevalent cases of OA and over 11,000 cases of LBP. Over the lifetime of the current adult population of Australia, the gains could add up to approximately 672,814 health-adjusted life years (HALYs) for OA (ie, 27 HALYs per 1000 persons) and 114,042 HALYs for LBP (ie, 5 HALYs per 1000 persons). The HALY gains would be 1.4 times bigger if the 2030 World Health Organization global target for PA was achieved and 11 times bigger if all Australians adhered to the Australian PA guidelines. Conclusion: This study provides empirical support for the adoption of PA in strategies for the prevention of OA and back pain.

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Physical Activity for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Africa and Cameroon: A Call to Action

Maurice Douryang, Kelly J. Tsafack Nanfosso, and Yagaï Bouba

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Physical Activity and Sitting Time Patterns and Sociodemographic Correlates Among 155,790 South American Adults

André O. Werneck, Raphael H.O. Araujo, Cecilia Anza-Ramírez, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Christian García-Witulski, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Se-Sergio Baldew, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Antonio García-Hermoso, Gerson Ferrari, Felicia Cañete, Ramfis Nieto-Martinez, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: To estimate the prevalence of different physical activity (PA) domains and sitting time (ST), and to analyze the association with sociodemographic indicators. Methods: Data from the most recent nationally representative survey from each of the South American countries, comprising 155,790 adults (18–64 y), were used. Data on leisure-time, transport, and occupational PA (all 3 domains as nonzero), total PA (≥150 min/wk), and ST (≥8 h/d) were assessed by specific questionnaires in each survey. Gender, age group (18–34, 35–49, and 50–64 y), and education (quintiles) were used as sociodemographic factors. Random effect meta-analysis of the association between sociodemographic factors and PA and ST were conducted. Results: The prevalence of PA guidelines compliance and elevated ST in South America was 70.3% and 14.1%, respectively. Women were less likely to achieve the recommended levels of total and domain-based PA. Participants in the highest quintile of education were more likely for elevated ST (2.80, 2.08–3.77), lower occupational PA (0.65, 0.44–0.95), but higher leisure-time PA (3.13, 2.31–4.27), in comparison with lowest quintile. Older adults were less likely to participate in total and leisure-time PA. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the urge to tackle the inequalities in PA practice in South America, especially gender and education inequalities, for leisure-time PA.

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Longitudinal Analysis of Patterns and Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Women From Preconception to Postpartum: The Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes Cohort

Anne H.Y. Chu, Natarajan Padmapriya, Shuen Lin Tan, Claire Marie J.L. Goh, Yap-Seng Chong, Lynette P. Shek, Kok Hian Tan, Peter D. Gluckman, Fabian K.P. Yap, Yung Seng Lee, See Ling Loy, Jerry K.Y. Chan, Keith M. Godfrey, Johan G. Eriksson, Shiao-Yng Chan, Jonathan Y. Bernard, and Falk Müller-Riemenschneider

Objective: Longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior patterns from preconception to postpartum are not fully characterized. We examined changes and baseline sociodemographic/clinical correlates of PA and sedentary behavior in women from preconception to postpartum. Methods: The Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes cohort recruited 1032 women planning pregnancy. Participants completed questionnaires at preconception, 34 to 36 weeks gestation, and 12 months postpartum. Repeated-measures linear regression models were used to analyze changes in walking, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), screen time, and total sedentary time, and to identify sociodemographic/clinical correlates associated with these changes. Results: Of the 373 women who delivered singleton live births, 281 provided questionnaires for all time points. Walking time increased from preconception to late pregnancy but decreased postpartum (adjusted means [95% CI]: 454 [333–575], 542 [433–651], and 434 [320–547] min/wk, respectively). Vigorous-intensity PA and MVPA decreased from preconception to late pregnancy but increased postpartum (vigorous-intensity PA: 44 [11–76], 1 [−3–5], and 11 [4–19] min/wk, MVPA: 273 [174–372], 165 [95–234], and 226 [126–325] min/wk, respectively). Screen time and total sedentary time remained consistent from preconception to pregnancy but decreased postpartum (screen: 238 [199–277], 244 [211–277], and 162 [136–189] min/d, total: 552 [506–598], 555 [514–596], and 454 [410–498] min/d, respectively). Individual characteristics of ethnicity, body mass index, employment, parity, and self-rated general health significantly influenced women’s activity patterns. Conclusion: During late pregnancy, walking time increased, while MVPA declined significantly, and partially returned to preconception levels postpartum. Sedentary time remained stable during pregnancy but decreased postpartum. The identified set of sociodemographic/clinical correlates underscores need for targeted strategies.

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A Scoping Review of Disability Assessment in Prospective and Cross-Sectional Studies That Included Device-Based Measurement of Physical Activity

Shelby Carr, Andrew J. Atkin, Andy P. Jones, Richard Pulsford, and Karen Milton

Background: Evidence on the prevalence, determinants, and health outcomes of physical activity in disabled people is limited. It is possible that the limited availability of high-quality scientific evidence is due to the extent and nature of disability assessment in physical activity research. This scoping review explores how disability has been measured in epidemiological studies that included accelerometer-based measurement of physical activity. Methods: Data sources: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, PsychINFO, Health Management Information Consortium, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. Eligibility criteria: Prospective and cross-sectional studies that included an accelerometer measurement of physical activity. Survey instruments used in these studies were obtained, and questions relating to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains of (1) health conditions, (2) body functions and structures, and (3) activities and participation, were extracted for analysis. Results: Eighty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, from which complete information on the 3 domains was obtained for 68. Seventy-five percent of studies (n = 51) captured whether a person had at least one health condition, 63% (n = 43) had questions related to body functions and structures, and 75% (n = 51) included questions related to activities and participation. Conclusion: While most studies asked something about one of the 3 domains, there was substantial diversity in the focus and style of questions. This diversity indicates a lack of consensus on how these concepts should be assessed, with implications for the comparability of evidence across studies and subsequent understanding of the relationships between disability, physical activity, and health.

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Launch of the Global Observatory for Physical Education (GoPE!)

João Martins, Marcos Onofre, and Pedro C. Hallal