Purpose: Develop a direct observation (DO) system to serve as a criterion measure for the calibration of models applied to free-living (FL) accelerometer data. Methods: Ten participants (19.4 ± 0.8 years) were video-recorded during four, one-hour FL sessions in different settings: 1) school, 2) home, 3) community, and 4) physical activity. For each setting, 10-minute clips from three randomly selected sessions were extracted and coded by one expert coder and up to 20 trained coders using the Observer XT software (Noldus, Wageningen, the Netherlands). The coder defines each whole-body movement which was further described with three modifiers: 1) locomotion, 2) activity type, and 3) MET value (used to categorize intensity level). Percent agreement was calculated for intra- and inter-rater reliability. For intra-rater reliability, the criterion coder coded all 12 clips twice, separated by at least one week between coding sessions. For inter-rater reliability, coded clips by trained coders were compared to the expert coder. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated to assess the agreement of intensity category for intra- and inter-rater comparisons described above. Results: For intra-rater reliability, mean percent agreement ranged from 91.9 ± 3.9% to 100.0 ± 0.0% across all variables in all settings. For inter-rater reliability, mean percent agreement ranged from 88.2 ± 3.5% to 100.0 ± 0.0% across all variables in all settings. ICCs for intensity category ranged from 0.74–1.00 and 0.81–1.00 for intra- and inter-rater comparisons, respectively. Conclusion: The DO system is reliable and feasible to serve as a criterion measure of FL physical activity in young adults to calibrate accelerometers, subsequently improving interpretation of surveillance and intervention research.
Melanna F. Cox, Greg J. Petrucci Jr., Robert T. Marcotte, Brittany R. Masteller, John Staudenmayer, Patty S. Freedson and John R. Sirard
Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith and Tertius A. Kohn
Very little is known about how long-term (>6 months) adaptation to a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet affects insulin signaling in healthy, well-trained individuals. This study compared glucose tolerance; skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) content; and muscle enzyme activities representative of the main energy pathways (3-hydroxyacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, phosphorylase) in trained cyclists who followed either a long-term LCHF or a mixed-macronutrient (Mixed) diet. On separate days, a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and muscle samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis of fasted participants. The LCHF group had reduced glucose tolerance compared with the Mixed group, as plasma glucose concentrations were significantly higher throughout the oral glucose tolerance test and serum insulin concentrations peaked later (LCHF, 60 min; Mixed, 30 min). Whole-body insulin sensitivity was not statistically significantly different between groups (Matsuda index: LCHF, 8.7 ± 3.4 vs. Mixed, 12.9 ± 4.6; p = .08). GLUT4 (LCHF: 1.13 ± 0.24; Mixed: 1.44 ± 0.16; p = .026) and IRS1 (LCHF: 0.25 ± 0.13; Mixed: 0.46 ± 0.09; p = .016) protein content was lower in LCHF muscle, but enzyme activities were not different. We conclude that well-trained cyclists habituated to an LCHF diet had reduced glucose tolerance compared with matched controls on a mixed diet. Lower skeletal muscle GLUT4 and IRS1 contents may partially explain this finding. This could possibly reflect an adaptation to reduced habitual glucose availability rather than the development of a pathological insulin resistance.
Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett
Background: The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion completed research to understand factors that could encourage Americans to follow the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, second edition, released in 2018. This study describes survey research assessing demographic characteristics that might be related to knowledge and awareness of the guidelines. Methods: An online survey of 2050 adult physical activity contemplators assessed knowledge of physical activity, awareness of the guidelines, and knowledge of dosage recommendations. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed, and demographic differences in knowledge and awareness were analyzed using Pearson chi-square tests and Fisher exact tests. Results: Respondents had medium to high knowledge of physical activity, although knowledge varied significantly by socioeconomic factors. Knowledge of dosage recommendations was very low, with 2% and 3% of respondents correctly identifying recommended moderate- and vigorous-intensity doses, respectively. Only 22% were aware of the guidelines; awareness was greater among those with a higher education or income and those without a disability. Conclusions: These findings guided the development of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion’s Move Your Way campaign and reinforced the need to raise awareness of the guidelines and promote behavior change among physical activity contemplators—particularly those from lower socioeconomic groups.
Sergei Iljukov, Jukka-Pekka Kauppi, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Juha E. Peltonen and Yorck O. Schumacher
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performances of female middle- and long-distance runners before and after the implementation of a new antidoping strategy (the Athlete Biological Passport [ABP]) in a country accused of systematic doping. A retrospective analysis of the results of Russian National Championships from 2008 to 2017 was performed. The 8 best female performances for the 800-m, 1500-m, 3000-m steeplechase, 5000-m, and 10,000-m events from the semifinals and finals were analyzed. The yearly number of athletes fulfilling standard qualifications for international competitions was also evaluated. Overall, numbers of athletes banned for doping in 2008–2017 were calculated. As a result, 4 events (800, 1500, 5000 [all P < .001], and 10,000 m [P < .01]) out of 5 showed statistically significant deterioration in the performances when comparing before and after the introduction of the ABP. The 3000-m steeplechase was the only event that did not show statistically significant change. The highest relative decrease in the number of runners who met standard qualification for international competition was for the 5000-m event (46%), followed by 1500-m (42%), 800-m (38%), 10,000-m (17%), and 3000-m steeplechase (1%). In conclusion, implementation of the ABP was followed by a significant reduction in the performance of female runners in a country accused of systematic doping. It can be reasonably speculated that more stringent antidoping testing, more specifically the introduction of the ABP, is a key reason for this reduction.
Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett
Background: The Move Your Way campaign, developed by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, aims to improve Americans’ adherence to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. This article describes the research that informed the campaign’s products, messaging, and strategy. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to understand participants’ preferences for physical activity messages and information seeking. Two rounds (round 1 [n = 95] and round 2 [n = 73]) of focus groups and an online survey (n = 2050) were conducted with adult physical activity contemplators. A third round (n = 84) of focus groups was conducted with children, teens, and parents of young children. Results: Adults, parents, teens, and children preferred messages that reflected diverse examples of activities; most participants disliked “one-size-fits-all” recommendations. Adults and parents preferred messages that emphasized specific health benefits over generic messages about overall health. Although some participants preferred getting physical activity information from digital search tools and social media platforms, many preferred getting this information from family members and friends. Conclusion: The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion translated these findings into 3 themes used for Move Your Way implementation: (1) leverage social and community connections, (2) emphasize representation through inclusion and diversity, and (3) customize physical activity recommendations to make them more achievable.
Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková
Purpose: Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has been shown to have an antifatigue effect. This study assessed up-hill running performance, as well as physiological and perceptual responses after supplementation with 1680 mL HRW between 24 h and 40 min before running, in athletes of heterogeneous running ability. Methods: Sixteen males (mean [SD] age 31.6 [8.6] y, VO2max 57.2 [8.9] mL·kg−1·min−1, body fat 13.4% [4.4%]) participated in this study. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either HRW or placebo prior to performing two 4.2-km up-hill races separated by a week. Race time (RT), average race heart rate, and immediately postrace rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Results: After analysis of data for all runners, HRW effect was unclear (−10 to 7 s, 90% confidence interval) for RT, likely trivial for heart rate (−2 to 3 beats·min−1), and likely trivial for postrace rating of perceived exertion (−0.1 to 1.0). A possible negative correlation was found between RT differences and average RT (r = −.79 to −.15). HRW for the 4 slowest runners (RT = 1490  s) likely improved the RT (−36 to −3 s), whereas for the 4 fastest runners (RT = 1069  s) the performance effect of HRW was unclear (−10 to 26 s). Conclusions: HRW intake had an unclear antifatigue effect on performance in terms of mean group values. However, it appears that the magnitude of the antifatigue effect of HRW on performance depends on individual running ability.
Rachel G. Curtis, Dorothea Dumuid, Timothy Olds, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Jillian Ryan, Sarah Edney and Carol Maher
Background: Substantial evidence links activity domains with health and well-being; however, research has typically examined time-use behaviors independently, rather than considering daily activity as a 24-hour time-use composition. This study used compositional data analysis to estimate the difference in physical and mental well-being associated with reallocating time between behaviors. Methods: Participants (n = 430; 74% female; 41  y) wore an accelerometer for 7 days and reported their body mass index; health-related quality of life (QoL); and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Regression models determined whether time-use composition, comprising sleep, sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), was associated with well-being. Compositional isotemporal substitution models estimated the difference in well-being associated with reallocating time between behaviors. Results: Time-use composition was associated with body mass index and physical health-related QoL. Reallocating time to MVPA from sleep, sedentary behavior, and LPA showed favorable associations with body mass index and physical health-related QoL, whereas reallocations from MVPA to other behaviors showed unfavorable associations. Reallocations from LPA to sedentary behavior were associated with better physical health–related QoL and vice versa. Conclusion: Results reinforce the importance of MVPA for physical health but do not suggest that replacing sedentary behavior with LPA is beneficial for health and well-being.