This commentary introduces the second of two special issues in the International Journal of Sport Communication centered on social media and sport. The empirical studies presented in this issue illustrate both the diversity of topics and methodological approaches utilized by researchers working at the intersection of social media and sport. Research articles in this issue analyze topics ranging from sport consumer behavior to online fan communities to coaches’ perceptions of activism-related content posted on team social media accounts. The research presented here also employs a variety of methodological approaches including experimental design, critical discourse analysis, rhetorical analysis, and applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Collectively, these studies offer a foundation on which future research in social media and sport can build to continue to enhance our understanding of social media’s impact on the sport world.
Social Media and Sport Research: Empirical Examinations Showcasing Diversity in Methods and Topics
Jimmy Sanderson and Gashaw Abeza
After-School Activities of Japanese Elementary School Children: Comparison of Children Who Attend Lessons and Cram Schools With Those Who Do Not
Background: This study examined the after-school activities of Japanese elementary school children in which little information is available for understanding the process by which participation in organized activities leads to the decrease in children’s independent mobility. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four mothers of elementary school children participated in an online survey. The mothers responded to the questions on the number of lessons (or cram schools) their children attended weekdays, as well as their children’s behavior after classes, and parents providing transportation when their children go out to play. Results: The proportion of children attending lessons and/or cram schools increased as their grades progressed. A significant interaction existed between the degree of parental transportation and grade in terms of whether or not the children attended lessons and/or cram schools. Parental involvement included pick up or drop-off for a large percentage of younger children without lessons, whereas the degree of parental involvement was greater for older children attending lessons. In other words, parents of children without attending lessons or cram schools tended to allow children to engage in independent activities when they reached the higher grades, whereas parents of children who frequently attended lessons and cram schools tended to remain involved in transporting their children, even when they reached the higher grades. Conclusions: The results suggested that the participation of children in organized activities leads to a routine of parental pickup and/or drop-off, which renders difficult the facilitation of opportunities for children to independently participate in play activities.
The Efficiency of Respiratory Exercises in Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Haiting Zhai, Liqing Zhang, JiXiang Xia, and Cheng Li
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder, and respiratory exercise is considered a nonsurgical management method. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the results of randomized controlled trials on the effect of respiratory training in reducing LBP and its dose relationship. Methods: The present study was conducted from January 2020 to January 2022, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (2020). Relevant studies were searched in multiple databases including PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Wan Fang and China Knowledge Network, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar, using a combination of MeSH/Emtree terms and free-text words. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the I 2 statistic. Results: A total of 14 publications were included in the meta-analysis, with a total sample size of 698 individuals, aged 60–80 years. Respiratory exercise was effective in relieving LBP (standardized mean difference = −0.87, P < .00001) and improving physical disability (standardized mean difference = −0.79, P < .00001). The type of breathing and the total duration of breathing exercises were found to be the source of heterogeneity in this study by subgroup analysis. Subgroup analysis revealed that the most significant effect sizes of breathing resistance exercise to reduce LBP and the most significant effect sizes of breathing relaxation techniques to alleviate physical disability were performed 3 to 5 times per week and period >4 weeks. Respiratory exercise reducing LBP and improving functional disability was most effective when the total duration of the intervention was >500 minutes. Funnel plots showed that the results of the 2 overall studies were reliable without publication bias. Conclusions: Respiratory exercise can effectively reduce LBP and improve physical disability. Therefore, these exercises can be regarded as a part of a LBP management plan. We recommend an exercise program with 30 to 50 minutes, 3 to 5 times per week, and >4 weeks of breathing resistance exercise program as the most effective for treating LBP.
Volunteerism During COVID-19: Sport Management Students’ Career Interests Against Public Health Risks
Kyu-soo Chung, Jennifer Willet, Chris Green, and Nari Shin
Employing the theory of planned behavior, this study aimed to identify how sport management students’ intentions to volunteer for a sporting event were affected by their COVID-19 preventive health factors and social consciousness. From eight U.S. universities, 415 sport management students responded to a self-administered online survey. Collected data were analyzed via hierarchical regression modeling. While the students’ health literacy and susceptibility affected their intentions positively, their social consciousness played a crucial role in producing low intentions to volunteer for a sporting event. Sport management educators should include more hands-on activities in the curriculum and collaborate with local sport agencies to provide diverse experiential learning opportunities while students comply with the health guidelines.
Erratum. Quantifying Area-Level Physical Activity Offerings in Social Context: A Novel Concept That Goes Beyond Walkability and Access to Open Spaces
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Erratum. Trans Women and/in Sport: Exploring Sport Feminisms to Understand Exclusions
Sociology of Sport Journal
In Remembrance: The Life and Legacy of Michael T. Turvey (1942–2023)
Michael A. Riley and Dagmar Sternad
Michael T. Turvey passed away on August 12, 2023 at the age of 81. This obituary aims to honor his life and career by highlighting some key events in his personal and professional life, noting some of his many remarkable accomplishments, and emphasizing his exceptional mentorship, friendship, and generosity.
Scholarly Book Reviews in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
Michael A. Hemphill
Erratum. “Teaching to Transgress”: Race and a Pedagogy of Empowerment in Kinesiology
Esports Athletes on a Team or Club Are More Physically Active and Less Sedentary Than Equally Experienced, Casual Video Gamers
Bryan Dowdell, Andrew Lepp, Brian H. Yim, and Jacob E. Barkley
Literature and governing agencies refer to gamers who partake in esports as “esports athletes,” and research suggests that exercise may be a beneficial component of esports training. Yet esports athletes are stereotyped similarly to casual gamers, for example, sedentary and not physically active. The purpose of this research was to compare physical activity and sedentary behavior between esports athletes on a team or club and casual gamers. Data were collected via an online survey (N = 532 total; n = 172 women). The survey assessed physical activity behaviors (i.e., International Physical Activity Questionnaire), time spent playing games, and esports affiliation. Independent samples t tests and analysis of variance were used for comparisons. Esports athletes on a team or club reported significantly more (F = 67.99, p < .001) physical activity (5,706 ± 4,558 metabolic equivalent min/week) compared to casual gamers (2,738 ± 2,792 metabolic equivalent min/week). There was a significant interaction between the effects of gender and group (F = 5.680, p = .018) on vigorous physical activity. Esports athletes on a team or club also reported significantly less (F = 77.436, p < .001) sedentary behavior compared to casual gamers. There was no reported difference in time spent playing video games between groups (t = 1.416, p = .157). In conclusion, esports athletes on a team or club were more physically active and less sedentary than their casual counterparts.