The “Matildas Effect”: Will the FIFA Women’s World Cup Generate a Legacy in Australia?
Ding Ding, Katherine Owen, Adrian E. Bauman, Gregore I. Mielke, and Klaus Gebel
Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Adapted to Include Adults With Physical Disability
Julianne G. Clina, R. Drew Sayer, James E. Friedman, Tsz Kiu Chui, Tapan Mehta, James H. Rimmer, and James O. Hill
Background: People with physical disabilities (PWD) participate in less physical activity than people without physical disabilities (PWoD), which increases the risk for several negative health consequences. Comparing physical activity between PWD and PWoD remains a challenge since no reliable and valid survey exists to measure physical activity in both populations. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was adapted to be inclusive of PWD using a recently developed survey adaption framework; however, the adapted IPAQ has not been assessed for reliability and validity. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the adapted IPAQ. Methods: To assess test–retest reliability, the adapted IPAQ was completed twice within a 72-hour period by 172 individuals (PWD: n = 102, PWoD: n = 70) and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients. Using Spearman rho, convergent validity and construct validity were assessed in 62 individuals by comparing the adapted IPAQ against the original instrument and activity monitor measured step count, respectively. Results: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated moderate test–retest reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients of total scores for the total sample of .690 (95% confidence interval [CI] .581–.770) and among subgroup analysis (PWD, .640, 95% CI, .457–.761; PWoD, .758, 95% CI, .610–.850). Correlation coefficients were also good for the assessment of convergent validity of total score (.727; 95% CI, .579–.829; P < .001). Construct validity assessment yielded moderate coefficient (.406; 95% CI, .166–.596; P = .001). Conclusions: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity and is appropriate for use in PWD and PWoD.
The Impact of Multimorbidity Patterns on Changes in Physical Activity and Physical Capacity Among Older Adults Participating in a Year-Long Exercise Intervention
Tiina Savikangas, Taija Savolainen, Anna Tirkkonen, Markku Alén, Arto J. Hautala, Jari A. Laukkanen, Timo Rantalainen, Timo Törmäkangas, and Sarianna Sipilä
This study investigated the impact of multimorbidity patterns on physical activity and capacity outcomes over the course of a year-long exercise intervention, and on physical activity 1 year later. Participants were 314 physically inactive community-dwelling men and women aged 70–85 years, with no contraindications for exercise at baseline. Physical activity was self-reported. Physical capacity measurements included five-time chair-stand time, 6-minute walking distance, and maximal isometric knee-extension strength. The intervention included supervised and home-based strength, balance, and walking exercises. Multimorbidity patterns comprised physician-diagnosed chronic disease conditions as a predictor cluster and body mass index as a measure of obesity. Multimorbidity patterns explained 0%–12% of baseline variance and 0%–3% of the change in outcomes. The magnitude and direction of the impact of unique conditions varied by outcome, time point, and sex. Multimorbid older adults with no contraindications for exercise may benefit from multimodal physical training.
Erratum. Do Fundamental Movement Skill Domains in Early Childhood Predict Engagement in Physical Activity of Varied Intensities Later at School Age? A 3-Year Longitudinal Study
Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Effect of a Customized Physical Activity Promotion Program on Visceral Fat and Glycemic Parameters in Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Radhika A. Jadhav, G. Arun Maiya, Shashikiran Umakanth, and K.N. Shivashankara
Background: Physical activity of any amount results in substantial health benefits. However, public awareness of physical activity benefits in chronic diseases is inadequate in India. Prediabetes is a significant health issue on a global scale. Visceral fat (VF) is considered as an early predictor of prediabetes. Ethnicity and race have a substantial impact on VF. Hence, this study intended to evaluate the effect of a customized physical activity promotion program on VF and glycemic parameters in individuals with prediabetes. Methods: In the current, parallel group randomized controlled trial, a total of 158 participants were recruited: 79 in intervention and 79 in control group. The study included the prediabetes individuals based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Participants from the intervention group received the customized physical activity promotion program for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measures of the study were VF level and glycemic parameters that included fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin. Two-way mixed analysis of variance was used to study the mean difference of an outcome between 2 groups over time. Results: The study found a statistically significant interaction between the intervention and times on VF level, F 1,136 = 23.564, fasting blood sugar levels, F 1,136 = 8.762, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, F 1,136 = 64.582 at the end of 24 weeks (P < .05). Conclusions: This study concluded that a customized physical activity promotion program was effective in reducing VF in individuals with prediabetes as compared with controls. It improved glycemic control by reducing fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin levels.
Understanding Physical Behaviors During Periods of Accelerometer Wear and Nonwear in College Students
Alexander H.K. Montoye, Kimberly A. Clevenger, Benjamin D. Boudreaux, and Michael D. Schmidt
Accelerometers are increasingly used to measure 24-hr movement behaviors but are sometimes removed intermittently (e.g., for sleep or bathing), resulting in missing data. This study compared physical behaviors between times a hip-placed accelerometer was worn versus not worn in a college student sample. Participants (n = 115) wore a hip-placed ActiGraph during waking times and a thigh-placed activPAL continuously for at least 7 days (mean ± SD 7.5 ± 1.1 days). Thirteen nonwear algorithms determined ActiGraph nonwear; days included in the analysis had to have at least 1 min where the ActiGraph classified nonwear while participant was classified as awake by the activPAL. activPAL data for steps, time in sedentary behaviors (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) from ActiGraph wear times were then compared with activPAL data from ActiGraph nonwear times. Participants took more steps (10.2–11.8 steps/min) and had higher proportions of MVPA (5.0%–5.9%) during ActiGraph wear time than nonwear time (3.1–8.0 steps/min, 0.8%–1.3% in MVPA). Effects were variable for SB (62.6%–66.9% of wear, 45.5%–76.2% of nonwear) and LPA (28.2%–31.5% of wear, 23.0%–53.2% of nonwear) depending on nonwear algorithm. Rescaling to a 12-hr day reduced SB and LPA error but increased MVPA error. Requiring minimum wear time (e.g., 600 min/day) reduced error but resulted in 10%–22% of days removed as invalid. In conclusion, missing data had minimal effect on MVPA but resulted in underestimation of SB and LPA. Strategies like scaling SB and LPA, but not MVPA, may improve physical behavior estimates from incomplete accelerometer data.
An xG of Their Own: Using Expected Goals to Explore the Analytical Shortcomings of Misapplied Gender Schemas in Football
Sachin Narayanan and N. David Pifer
Although professional women’s football has benefitted from recent surges in popularity, challenges to progress and distinguish the sport persist. The gender-schema theory explains the tendency for individuals to hold female sports to male standards, a phenomenon that leads to negative outcomes in areas such as media representation and consumer perception. One area in which schemas have a more discreet effect is player and team performance, where the assumption that technical metrics developed in men’s football are transferable to women’s football remains unfounded. Using expected goals, a metric synonymous with the probability of a shot being scored, we highlight how variables important to shot quality and shot execution differ across gender, and how attempts to evaluate female footballers with models built on men’s data increase estimation errors. These results have theoretical and practical implications for the role they play in reframing schemas and improving the methods used to evaluate performance in women’s sports.
“What Have I Learned . . . ” and How Did I Get There? Reflection on a Research Journey
Receiving a lifetime award allows one to pause and reflect on one’s research journey. In the spirit of Earle Zeigler himself, I reflect on: “What I have learned . . . ” on my research journey, and more specifically on how I got there. My research has always focused on the interaction between sport, economics, and society and evolved: “From socio-economic impacts on sport participation to socio-economic outcomes of sport events.” To cover 40 years of research, I am highlighting how: (a) “triggers,” (b) “influencers,” and (c) “lessons learned” intermingled to push my research agenda forward. This reflection proved to be a very gratifying exercise. I can highly recommend it to all researchers. Perhaps, this can become a stepping stone to be promoted to the rank of Prof. Emeritus or Emerita. Either way, sharing our experiences may trigger, inspire, and advance the learning of future generations of sport management scholars.
The Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Measures of Teamwork in Sport
Desmond McEwan, Eesha J. Shah, Kaitlin L. Crawford, Patricia C. Jackman, Matt D. Hoffmann, Ethan Cardinal, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, and Alex J. Benson
In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.