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Alexandra Stribing, Adam Pennell, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Individuals with visual impairments (VI) trend toward lower motor competence when compared with peers without VI. Various forms of perception often affects motor competence. Thus, it is important to explore factors that influence forms of perception and their differential effects on motor competence for those with VI. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to explore and describe the differential effects of age, gender, and degree of vision on self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, metaperceptions, and locomotor skills, and to examine potential associations among all variables with actual locomotor competence for adolescents with VI. Adolescents with VI completed two questionnaires and the Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition. Parents completed a parent perception questionnaire. Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H analyses showed no differential effects for gender or age on any dependent measures. Degree of vision affected locomotor skills, but not any other factor. Spearman rho correlations showed significant associations among locomotor and self-perceptions, degree of vision and locomotor, and metaperceptions with parents’ perceptions. Adolescents reported relatively high self-perceptions and metaperceptions; however, their actual locomotor competence and parents’ perceptions were relatively low. Findings may help situate future intervention strategies targeting parents supporting their children’s locomotor skills through self-perceptions.

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Rylee A. Dionigi, Maria Horne, Anne-Marie Hill, and Mary Ann Kluge

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Janet S. Fink, Jeffrey D. James, and Scott Tainsky

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Ryota Akagi, Yuta Nomura, Chiho Kawashima, Mari Ito, Kosuke Oba, Yuma Tsuchiya, Geoffrey A. Power, and Kosuke Hirata

This study investigated associations of fatigue resistance determined by an exercise-induced decrease in neuromuscular power with prefatigue neuromuscular strength and power of the knee extensors in 31 older men (65–88 years). A fatigue task consisted of 50 consecutive maximal effort isotonic knee extensions (resistance: 20% of prefatigue isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque) over a 70° range of motion. The average of the peak power values calculated from the 46th to 50th contractions during the fatigue task was normalized to the prefatigue peak power value, which was defined as neuromuscular fatigue resistance. Neuromuscular fatigue resistance was negatively associated with prefatigue maximal power output (r = −.530) but not with prefatigue maximal voluntary contraction torque (r = −.252). This result highlights a trade-off between prefatigue maximal power output and neuromuscular fatigue resistance, implying that an improvement in maximal power output might have a negative impact on neuromuscular fatigue resistance.

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Samantha M. Ross, Justin A. Haegele, Bridgette M. Schram, and Sean Healy

This study aimed to quantify and compare physical activity, sitting time, and sleep behaviors among US adults with and without disabilities using the 2020 Canadian 24-hour movement framework. The weighted prevalence of 24-hour movement guideline adherence was estimated among a nationally representative sample from the 2017 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of US adults (18–65 years old) with (n = 1070) and without (n = 33,370) functional disabilities in vision, hearing, mobility, cognitive, and self-care domains. The adjusted odds of single and combination guideline compliance were estimated by disability type, in reference to adults without disabilities, using separate multivariable logistic regressions. After adjusting for age, sex, and income, adults with disabilities in mobility, cognitive, or self-care domains had approximately half the odds of meeting all 3 guidelines, compared with adults without disabilities (adjusted odds range: 0.49–0.77). Significantly lower adherence was observed among adults with functional disabilities, compared with no disabilities, for sleep, and moderate to vigorous physical activity, but not sedentary guidelines. This report establishes baseline prevalence estimates for guidelines compliance among US adults with functional disabilities ages 18–65 years old. Low guideline adherence, and evidence for significant differences in physical activity and sleep, signals a need to further explore combination health behaviors among adults with disabilities.

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Dominika Bhatia, Nancy M. Salbach, Olayinka Akinrolie, Kyla Alsbury-Nealy, Renato Barbosa dos Santos, Parvin Eftekhar, Hal Loewen, Erica Nekolaichuk, Chelsea Scheller, Rebecca Schorr, Stephanie Scodras, and Ruth Barclay

Limited community ambulation, defined as independent mobility outside the home, predicts adverse outcomes in older adults. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine outdoor community ambulation intervention effectiveness in older adults. We searched six databases until October 2021. Studies with an evaluative research objective, older adult population, and outdoor community ambulation interventions were eligible. After reviewing 23,172 records, five studies were included. The meta-analysis found no significant difference in walking endurance and depression outcomes between outdoor community ambulation and comparison interventions. For outcomes not suitable for meta-analysis, studies showed no significant difference in walking activity, anxiety, and general and health-related quality of life, and possible improvements in gait speed and lower extremity function and strength. Most evidence was of low to very low certainty. Considering the limited evidence base, the design, implementation, and evaluation of outdoor community ambulation interventions in older adults should be prioritized in primary research.

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Maria Cecília Marinho Tenório, Christianne Coelho-Ravagnani, Daniel Umpierre, Douglas Roque Andrade, Roseanne Autran, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Fabiana Vieira Santos Azevedo Cavalcante, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Alex Antonio Florindo, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Grégore Iven Mielke, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Lorena Lima Magalhães, Paula Fabricio Sandreschi, Sofia Wolker Manta, Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira, Pedro Curi Hallal, and on behalf of the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines Working Group*

Background: This article describes the process and methods used in the development of the first ever Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods: The steering committee established 8 working groups based on other guidelines and the Brazilian agenda for public health and physical activity (PA) promotion: (1) understanding PA; (2) children up to 5 years; (3) children and youth (6–17 y); (4) adults; (5) older adults (60 years and above); (6) physical education at school; (7) pregnant and postpartum women; and (8) people with disabilities. Working groups were formed to (1) synthesize the literature on each topic; (2) conduct workshops with stakeholders, health professionals, researchers, and the public; and (3) prepare a draft chapter for open online consultation. Results: The document provides guidance for the population on the benefits of being active and recommendations regarding the amount (frequency, intensity, and duration) of PA recommended across all chapters. It also includes information on supporting networks for PA. Conclusions: The PA guidelines are widely accessible in Portuguese, including versions in English, Spanish, audiobook, and Braille, and will assist policy makers and professionals from several sectors to promote PA. The ultimate goal is to increase population levels of PA in Brazil.

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Daniel Umpierre, Christianne Coelho-Ravagnani, Maria Cecília Tenório, Douglas Roque Andrade, Roseanne Autran, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Fabiana Vieira Santos Azevedo Cavalcante, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Alex Antonio Florindo, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Sofia Wolker Manta, Grégore Iven Mielke, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Lorena Lima Magalhães, Paula Fabricio Sandreschi, Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira, Pedro Curi Hallal, and on behalf of the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines Working Group*

Background: This article presents the recommendations from the Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A steering committee composed of a chair, 6 experts in physical activity, and representatives from the Ministry of Health/Brazil, Pan American Health Organization, Brazilian Society of Physical Activity and Health designed the guidelines, which was implemented by 8 working groups, as follows: (1) understanding physical activity, (2) children up to 5 years old, (3) children and youth from 6 to 17 years old, (4) adults, (5) older adults (60 years and above), (6) physical education at school, (7) pregnant and postpartum women, and (8) people with disabilities. The methodological steps included evidence syntheses, hearings with key stakeholders, and public consultation. Results: Across 8 chapters, the guidelines provide definitions of physical activity and sedentary behavior, informing target groups on types of physical activity, dosage (frequency, intensity, and duration), benefits, and supporting network for physical activity adoption. The guidelines are openly available in Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Braille and in audio versions, with a supplementary guide for health professionals and decision makers, and a report about the preparation and references. Conclusions: The Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population provide evidence-based recommendations, being a public-directed resource to contribute to the physical activity promotion in Brazil.

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Kar Hau Chong, Dorothea Dumuid, Dylan P. Cliff, Anne-Maree Parrish, and Anthony D. Okely

Background: Little is known about the influence of 24-hour movement behaviors on children’s psychosocial health when transitioning from primary to secondary school. This study described changes in 24-hour domain-specific movement behavior composition and explored their associations with changes in psychosocial health during this transition. Methods: Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The analytical sample (n = 909) included children who were enrolled in primary school at baseline (2010) and in secondary school at follow-up (2012). Time spent in 8 domains of movement behaviors was derived from the child-completed time-use diaries. Psychosocial health was examined using the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires. Analyses included repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and compositional regression. Results: Children reported engaging in more social activities and sleeping less over the transition period. Increased time spent in social activities (β ilr = −0.06, P = .014) and recreational screen use (β ilr = −0.17, P = .003) (relative to other domains) were associated with decreased prosocial behavior in boys. Changes in movement behavior composition were not associated with changes in girls’ psychosocial health. Conclusion: This study found considerable changes in children’s 24-hour movement behavior composition, but a lack of consistent association with changes in psychosocial health during the primary to secondary school transition.