Background: Balancing performance can be affected by regular and high-level athletic training, which has not been fully explored in synchronized ice skaters. This study aimed to analyze the dynamic balancing performance by assessing the principal and compensatory movements performed during the sudden provocation tests and evaluating the parameters that characterize the platform’s motion. Method: Twelve young female synchronized ice skaters and 12 female age-matched controls participated. Sudden provocation tests were completed three times in bipedal stance and in single-leg stances, and sport-specific fatigue session was inserted between the repetitions. Results: Significantly more time was necessary to recover balance for both groups after the fatiguing sessions (p < .05). Interestingly, skaters performed less effectively in the simplest condition (bipedal stance) than the control group (p < .05). The principal component analysis showed that the first principal movement was the same for both groups. The skater group used the upper body and arms more often to compensate, while the control group’s recovery strategy consisted mainly of abduction of the elevated leg. The damping ratio and the relative variance of the first principal movement showed a negative correlation (p < .05), suggesting that those with superior balancing effectiveness recruited more compensatory movements.
Zsófia Pálya, Bálint Petró, and Rita M. Kiss
Maarten A. Immink
Stephen Hunter, John C. Spence, Scott T. Leatherdale, and Valerie Carson
Background: Neighborhoods are one setting to promote children’s physical activity. This study examined associations between neighborhood features and children’s physical activity and whether season or socioeconomic status modified these associations. Methods: Parents (n = 641) of children aged 6–10 years completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated. Walkability was objectively measured at 400, 800, and 1200 m around the centroid of participants’ postal codes. Children’s physical activity was measured via StepsCount pedometers and parental report. Regression analyses were performed with interaction terms for season and socioeconomic status. Multiple imputation was used primarily to triangulate the results for children with missing steps data (n = 192). Results: Higher perceived residential density and traffic hazards were significantly associated with lower squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity and steps per day, respectively. Higher perceived aesthetics was associated with higher squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity. Socioeconomic status modified 2 associations though they were not significant upon stratification. During winter months, better perceived infrastructure and safety for walking was associated with higher squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity. No other significant associations emerged. Conclusion: Residential density, traffic hazards, and aesthetics are important for children’s physical activity. Few associations were modified by socioeconomic status or season. The need for objective and subjective measures of the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity is apparent.
Ransimala Nayakarathna, Nimesh B. Patel, Cheryl Currie, Guy Faulkner, Negin A. Riazi, Mark S. Tremblay, François Trudeau, and Richard Larouche
Background: Previous research shows that children from ethnic minority groups spend less time outdoors. Using data collected in 3 regions of Canada, we investigated the correlates of outdoor time among schoolchildren who spoke a nonofficial language at home. Methods: A total of 1699 children were recruited from 37 schools stratified by area-level socioeconomic status and type of urbanization. Among these, 478 spoke a nonofficial language at home. Children’s outdoor time and data on potential correlates were collected via questionnaires. Gender-stratified linear multiple regression models examined the correlates of outdoor time while controlling for age and sampling variables. Results: In boys, higher independent mobility, higher outdoor air temperature, mobile phone ownership, having older parents, and parents who biked to work were associated with more outdoor time. Boys living in suburban (vs urban) areas spent less time outdoors. The association between independent mobility and outdoor time became weaker with increasing age for boys. In girls, lower parental education and greater parental concerns about neighborhood safety and social cohesion were associated with less outdoor time. Conclusions: Correlates of outdoor time differ by gender and span the social ecological model underscoring the need for gender-sensitized interventions targeted at individual, family, social, and physical environmental correlates to increase outdoor time.
Janelle Joseph, Bahar Tajrobehkar, Gabriela Estrada, and Zeana Hamdonah
Background: This scoping literature review examines: What literature exists about the sport and physical activity experiences of racialized cis and trans women, adolescents, and girls in Canada? Methods: English language peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and gray literature published January 1, 2000, up to May 31, 2020, were examined. The databases used were SPORTDiscus via EBSCO, Sociological Abstracts, Sport Medicine and Education Index, and Google Scholar. The 42 studies and 15 gray literatures found included 1430 participants explicitly specified as racialized women/girl participants. Results: There was a paucity of literature on the topic overall with none (n = 0) focused on experiences of racialized trans women. The limited research notes some successful programs that address racialized women’s needs. However, the research also shows widespread experiences of discrimination against women based on racial group and language and limited access to culturally relevant or welcoming sporting opportunities, such as women-only programs and spaces. Conclusions: Much more research should be done to disaggregate “immigrants” into specific racial and ethnic groups, attend to intersectional identities and barriers, understand a wide range of involvement (eg, including coaching, high performance sport, recreation, exercise, university sport, mentorship programs), document racism and White privilege, and describe the joys of participation in sport for racialized women.
Hannah Bennett, Robert Owens, and Tanya Prewitt-White
Kadia Saint-Onge, Paquito Bernard, Célia Kingsbury, and Janie Houle
Few studies have focused on older public housing tenants’ perceptions of physical activity. Greater understanding of how they define, appreciate, and engage in physical activity could lead to better targeted promotion and reduced health inequalities for this subgroup of the population. We conducted 26 walk-along interviews with older public housing tenants in Montreal (Canada). Tenants were aged 60–93 years and lived in either one of three study sites including a commercial, a residential, and a mixed land-use area. Physical activity was described as a multidimensional construct through six interdependent dimensions: physiological, emotional, interpersonal, occupational, intellectual, and existential. Participants perceived physical activity as having potential for both well-being and ill-being. Perceptions of physical activity were a function of age, physical capacity, gender, culture, revenue, and relation to community. These results support using a life-course perspective and a broader definition in promoting physical activity to older public housing tenants.