Objective: The objectives were (1) to establish the strength of the association between incident cases of osteoarthritis (OA) and low back pain (LBP), and physical activity (PA) and to assess the likelihood of the associations being causal; and (2) to quantify the impact of PA on the burden of OA and LBP in Australia. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review in EMBASE and PubMed databases from January 01, 2000, to April 28, 2020. We used the Bradford Hill viewpoints to assess causality. We used a proportional multistate life table model to estimate the impact of changes in the PA levels on OA and LBP burdens for the 2019 Australian population (aged ≥ 20 y) over their remaining lifetime. Results: We found that both OA and LBP are possibly causally related to physical inactivity. Assuming causality, our model projected that if the 2025 World Health Organization global target for PA was met, the burden in 25 years’ time could be reduced by 70,000 prevalent cases of OA and over 11,000 cases of LBP. Over the lifetime of the current adult population of Australia, the gains could add up to approximately 672,814 health-adjusted life years (HALYs) for OA (ie, 27 HALYs per 1000 persons) and 114,042 HALYs for LBP (ie, 5 HALYs per 1000 persons). The HALY gains would be 1.4 times bigger if the 2030 World Health Organization global target for PA was achieved and 11 times bigger if all Australians adhered to the Australian PA guidelines. Conclusion: This study provides empirical support for the adoption of PA in strategies for the prevention of OA and back pain.
Mary Njeri Wanjau, Holger Möller, Fiona Haigh, Andrew Milat, Rema Hayek, Peta Lucas, and J. Lennert Veerman
Jingzhi Yu, Kristopher Kapphahn, Hyatt Moore, Farish Haydel, Thomas Robinson, and Manisha Desai
Background: Clustering, a class of unsupervised machine learning methods, has been applied to physical activity data recorded by accelerometers to discover unique patterns of physical activity and health outcomes. The prediction strength metric provides a criterion to determine the optimal number of clusters for clustering methods. The aim of this study is to provide specific guidance for applying prediction strength to time series accelerometer data. Methods: For this purpose, we designed an extensive simulation study. We created a synthetic data set of accelerometer data using data from a childhood obesity management trial. We evaluated the role of a prespecified threshold of the prediction strength metric as a key input parameter. We compared the recommended threshold (between 0.8 and 0.9) with an approach we developed (Local Maxima). Results: The choice of threshold had a large impact on performance. When the noise level increased (greater overlap between true clusters), lower thresholds outperformed the recommended threshold, which tended to underestimate the true number of clusters. In addition, we found that sorting the data by magnitude of intensity in windows within the time series of interest prior to clustering alleviated sensitivity to threshold choice. Furthermore, for accelerometer data, we recommend that the Local Maxima approach be utilized together with a graphical evaluation of the prediction strength metric function over values of k. Finally, we strongly suggest sorting of the data prior to clustering if sorting retains meaning for the research question at hand. Conclusion: Our recommendations can help future researchers discover more robust patterns from accelerometer data.
Maurice Douryang, Kelly J. Tsafack Nanfosso, and Yagaï Bouba
Niels Boysen Feddersen
There has been a paucity of literature discussing how to address consent procedures as part of ethics, practitioner development, and best practice in applied sport psychology. Several researchers have addressed ethical challenges (e.g., out-of-session contact, overidentification, time, and space). However, none have substantially considered the sport-specific issues related to consent, which sits at the heart of best practice. The scarcity of discussing consent is limiting sport psychology’s potential to establish itself as a more recognized profession. This article highlights some contextual issues that challenge the idea and efficacy of informed consent. It proposes adapting consent procedures in the collaboration between sport psychology practitioners and clients to better address the current contextual challenges in applied sport psychology. In doing so, the current paper introduces Empowered Consent, which is specifically designed to empower athletes and address challenges related to choosing interventions, contractual obligations, visibility in the environment, and staff trying to gain insights into confidential information. The author offers a model to enhance applied practice for those collaborating with athletes and other clients in sport.
Amirali Hajebi, Maryam Nasserinejad, Sina Azadnajafabad, Erfan Ghasemi, Negar Rezaei, Moein Yoosefi, Azin Ghamari, Mohammad Keykhaei, Ali Ghanbari, Esmaeil Mohammadi, Mohammad-Mahdi Rashidi, Fateme Gorgani, Mana Moghimi, Alireza Namazi Shabestari, and Farshad Farzadfar
Background: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity in all districts of Iran and the disparities between subgroups defined by various measures. Methods: Small area estimation method was employed to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity in districts based on the remaining districts in which data on the level of physical inactivity were available. Various comparisons on the estimations were done based on socioeconomic, sex, and geographical stratifications to determine the disparities of physical inactivity among districts of Iran. Results: All districts of Iran had a higher prevalence of physical inactivity compared with the world average. The estimated prevalence of physical inactivity among all men in all districts was 46.8% (95% uncertainty interval, 45.9%–47.7%). The highest and lowest estimated disparity ratio of physical inactivity were 1.95 and 1.14 in males, and 2.25 and 1.09 in females, respectively. Females significantly had a higher prevalence of 63.5% (62.7%–64.3%). Among both sexes, the poor population and urban residents significantly had higher prevalence of physical inactivity than rich population and rural residents, respectively. Conclusions: The high prevalence of physical inactivity among Iranian adult population suggests the urgent need to adopt population-wide action plans and policies to handle this major public health problem and avert the probable burden.
Nicholas Scicluna, Mark Hamer, and Joanna M. Blodgett
Background: Adolescence is a critical period filled with life changes. Early implementation of effective health promotion strategies could help alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with inactivity. This study investigated whether adolescent participation in exercise and sport is associated with device-assessed physical activity (PA) levels in midlife. Methods: A total of 2984 participants (41.2% male) from the 1970 British Cohort Study were included. Participants were surveyed at age 16 years on 5 indicators of exercise and sport participation. Total daily PA and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at age 46 years were measured using a thigh-worn accelerometer, worn for 7 days. Associations between each adolescent exercise or sport indicator and adulthood total daily PA and MVPA were examined using linear regressions, adjusting for sex, wear time, body mass index, smoking, disability, malaise, alcohol consumption, social class, education, and self-rated health. Results: In fully adjusted models, adolescents who reported exercising “much more” than others (8.6 min/d; 95% confidence interval, −0.1 to 17.1), who played sports at the park/playground more than once a week (8.5 [3.0–14.0] min/d), and who exercised on the most recent Saturday (3.8 [0.7–6.9] min/d) had higher adult total PA levels than those who reported the lowest activity levels. There was no evidence of an association between greater sport and exercise participation at age 16 y and MVPA at age 46 y. There was no association between sports at school and either measure of adult PA. Conclusion: Active adolescents, particularly those who engaged in out-of-school exercise, had higher total daily PA levels, but not MVPA levels, in midlife. This highlights the potential of early PA interventions to improve PA levels in adulthood.
Mengyi Wei and Kim C. Graber
This scoping review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of physical education (PE) literature related to bullying. The review was outlined and guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. All English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals that focused on bullying and PE were included. Thematic analysis was used to summarize data extracted from the selected literature. In total, 43 articles conducted in 16 countries were included in this scoping review. Results identified individual-, peer-, school-, and family-level factors that trigger bullying in PE. The impacts of bullying in PE, antibullying strategies and interventions, and summary of future study directions are also discussed. Results from the study highlighted the importance of adopting social ecological perspectives to address bullying behavior and guide antibullying interventions in PE. Physical activities that can potentially promote children’s social emotional learning are also needed to reduce and prevent bullying in PE.
André O. Werneck, Raphael H.O. Araujo, Cecilia Anza-Ramírez, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Christian García-Witulski, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Se-Sergio Baldew, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Antonio García-Hermoso, Gerson Ferrari, Felicia Cañete, Ramfis Nieto-Martinez, and Danilo R. Silva
Background: To estimate the prevalence of different physical activity (PA) domains and sitting time (ST), and to analyze the association with sociodemographic indicators. Methods: Data from the most recent nationally representative survey from each of the South American countries, comprising 155,790 adults (18–64 y), were used. Data on leisure-time, transport, and occupational PA (all 3 domains as nonzero), total PA (≥150 min/wk), and ST (≥8 h/d) were assessed by specific questionnaires in each survey. Gender, age group (18–34, 35–49, and 50–64 y), and education (quintiles) were used as sociodemographic factors. Random effect meta-analysis of the association between sociodemographic factors and PA and ST were conducted. Results: The prevalence of PA guidelines compliance and elevated ST in South America was 70.3% and 14.1%, respectively. Women were less likely to achieve the recommended levels of total and domain-based PA. Participants in the highest quintile of education were more likely for elevated ST (2.80, 2.08–3.77), lower occupational PA (0.65, 0.44–0.95), but higher leisure-time PA (3.13, 2.31–4.27), in comparison with lowest quintile. Older adults were less likely to participate in total and leisure-time PA. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the urge to tackle the inequalities in PA practice in South America, especially gender and education inequalities, for leisure-time PA.
Shelby Carr, Andrew J. Atkin, Andy P. Jones, Richard Pulsford, and Karen Milton
Background: Evidence on the prevalence, determinants, and health outcomes of physical activity in disabled people is limited. It is possible that the limited availability of high-quality scientific evidence is due to the extent and nature of disability assessment in physical activity research. This scoping review explores how disability has been measured in epidemiological studies that included accelerometer-based measurement of physical activity. Methods: Data sources: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, PsychINFO, Health Management Information Consortium, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. Eligibility criteria: Prospective and cross-sectional studies that included an accelerometer measurement of physical activity. Survey instruments used in these studies were obtained, and questions relating to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains of (1) health conditions, (2) body functions and structures, and (3) activities and participation, were extracted for analysis. Results: Eighty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, from which complete information on the 3 domains was obtained for 68. Seventy-five percent of studies (n = 51) captured whether a person had at least one health condition, 63% (n = 43) had questions related to body functions and structures, and 75% (n = 51) included questions related to activities and participation. Conclusion: While most studies asked something about one of the 3 domains, there was substantial diversity in the focus and style of questions. This diversity indicates a lack of consensus on how these concepts should be assessed, with implications for the comparability of evidence across studies and subsequent understanding of the relationships between disability, physical activity, and health.