Mobility is essential to maintaining independence for older adults. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence about self-reported risk factors for self-reported mobility decline; and to provide an overview of published prognostic models for self-reported mobility decline among community-dwelling older adults. Databases were searched from inception to June 2, 2020. Studies were screened by two independent reviewers who extracted data and assessed study quality. Sixty-one studies (45,187 participants) were included, providing information on 107 risk factors. High-quality evidence and moderate/large effect sizes for the association with mobility decline were found for older age beyond 75 years, the presence of widespread pain, and mobility modifications. Moderate–high quality evidence and small effect sizes were found for a further 21 factors. Three model development studies demonstrated acceptable model performance, limited by high risk of bias. These findings should be considered in intervention development, and in developing a prediction instrument for practical application.
Philippa J.A. Nicolson, Maria T. Sanchez-Santos, Julie Bruce, Shona Kirtley, Lesley Ward, Esther Williamson, and Sarah E. Lamb
Gregory J. Welk, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Philip M. Dixon, Paul R. Hibbing, Yang Bai, Gabriella M. McLoughlin, and Michael Pereira da Silva
A balance between the feasibility and validity of measures is an important consideration for physical activity (PA) research—particularly in school-based research with youth. The present study extends previously tested calibration methods to develop and test new equations for an online version of the youth activity profile (YAP) tool, a self-report tool designed for school applications. Data were collected across different regions and seasons to develop more robust, generalizable equations. The study involved a total of 717 youth from 33 schools (374 elementary [ages 9–11 years], 224 middle [ages 11–14 years], and 119 high school [ages 14–18 years]) in two different states in the United States. Participants wore a Sensewear monitor for a full week and then completed the online YAP at school to report PA and sedentary behaviors in school and at home. Accelerometer data were processed using an R-based segmentation program to compute PA and sedentary behavior levels. Quantile regression models were used with half of the sample to develop item-specific YAP calibration equations, and these were cross validated with the remaining half of the sample. Computed values of mean absolute percentage error ranged from 15 to 25% with slightly lower error observed for the middle school sample. The new equations had improved precision compared with the previous versions when tested on the same sample. The online version of the YAP provides an efficient and effective way to capture school level estimates of PA and sedentary behaviors in youth.
Andrew P. Kingsnorth, Mhairi Patience, Elena Moltchanova, Dale W. Esliger, Nicola J. Paine, and Matthew Hobbs
The response to COVID-19 resulted in behavioral restrictions to tackle the spread of infection. Initial data indicates that step counts were impacted by lockdown restrictions; however, there is little evidence regarding changes of light and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) behavioral intensities. In this study, participants were asked to provide longitudinal wearable data from Fitbit devices over a period of 30 weeks, from December 2019 to June 2020. Self-assessed key worker status was captured, along with wearable estimates of steps, light activity, and MVPA. Bayesian change point analyses of data from 97 individuals found that there was a sharp decrease of 1,473 steps (95% credible interval [CI] [−2,218, −709]) and light activity minutes (41.9; 95% CI [−54.3, −29.3]), but an increase in MVPA minutes (11.7; 95% CI [2.9, 19.4]) in the mean weekly totals for nonkey workers. For the key workers, the total number of steps (207; 95% CI [−788, 1,456]) and MVPA minutes increased (20.5; 95% CI [12.6, 28.3]) but light activity decreased by an average of 46.9 min (95% CI [−61.2, −31.8]). Interestingly, the change in steps was commensurate with that observed during Christmas (1,458; 95% CI [−2,286, −554]) for nonkey workers and behavioral changes occurred at different time points and rates depending on key worker status. Results indicate that there were clear behavioral modifications before and during the initial COVID-19 lockdown period, and future research should assess whether any behavioral modifications were sustained over time.
Elina Engberg, Marja H. Leppänen, Catharina Sarkkola, and Heli Viljakainen
Background: This study aimed to examine whether sedentary digital media use in preadolescence increases the risk of being overweight 3 years later, and whether this association differs based on preadolescents’ leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) levels. Methods: The authors conducted a 3-year follow-up study among 4661 participants with a mean (SD) age of 11 (1) years at baseline and 14 (1) years at follow-up. A web-based questionnaire assessed sedentary digital media use and LTPA. The authors categorized baseline LTPA duration into 3 levels: 0 to 5 (low), 6 to 8 (moderate), and ≥9 (high) hours per week. In addition, the authors categorized adolescents as normal weight or overweight/obese at follow-up. Results: Greater amounts of sedentary digital media use at baseline associated with an increased risk of being overweight 3 years later even after adjusting for confounders. This only held for preadolescents with low baseline LTPA (OR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.24), but not among those with moderate (OR = 1.02; 0.91–1.15) or high (OR = 0.96; 0.85–1.08) LTPA. Conclusions: Preadolescent LTPA modified the long-term association between sedentary digital media use and being overweight; specifically, 6 hours per week or more of LTPA mitigated the increased risk of being overweight associated with higher amounts of digital media use.
Eleni Diakogeorgiou, R. Richard Ray Jr., Sara Brown, Jay Hertel, and Douglas J. Casa
Athletic training is a health care profession with roots in athletics and kinesiology that has evolved into a critical component of contemporary sports medicine. The aim of this article is to review the history and evolution of the athletic training profession, contextualize the current state of athletic training education and research, and address priorities and challenges that the athletic training profession must confront if it is to continue to thrive. Specific challenges include addressing health disparities in sports medicine, increasing the diversity of the athletic training profession, clearly delineating athletic training’s place in the health care arena, and increasing salaries and retention of athletic trainers in the profession.
Karl M. Newell
This paper provides reflections on the progress to date and current status of research in kinesiology. The accompanying overview articles in this special issue of Kinesiology Review show that the contemporary disciplinary/professional foci of kinesiology remain, by and large, the same as the initial research and teaching structures of 50 years ago, as outlined in the inaugural overviews. Nevertheless, within this prevailing disciplinary/professional structure, there have been many new developments in movement-related research, including the juxtaposition of novel alignments and integrations of certain specializations of kinesiology. There is general consensus that the quality and quantity of research in kinesiology have advanced substantially, albeit unevenly, on multiple fronts, both within and between the areas of specialization. The research agenda in kinesiology has benefitted from the growing realization of the centrality of human movement and physical activity in contributing to a healthy lifestyle for individuals and societies.
Jane E. Clark and Jill Whitall
In 1981, George Brooks provided a review of the academic discipline of physical education and its emerging subdisciplines. Forty years later, the authors review how the field has changed from the perspective of one subdiscipline, motor development. Brooks’s text sets the scene with four chapters on motor development from leaders in the field, including G. Lawrence Rarick, to whom the book is dedicated. From this beginning, the paper describes the evolving scientific perspectives that have emerged since 1981. Clearly, from its past to the present, motor development as a scientific field has itself developed into a robust and important scientific area of study. The paper ends with a discussion of the grand challenges for kinesiology and motor development in the next 40 years.
Deborah Salvo, Leandro Garcia, Rodrigo S. Reis, Ivana Stankov, Rahul Goel, Jasper Schipperijn, Pedro C. Hallal, Ding Ding, and Michael Pratt
Background: Many of the known solutions to the physical inactivity pandemic operate across sectors relevant to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Methods: The authors examined the contribution of physical activity promotion strategies toward achieving the SDGs through a conceptual linkage exercise, a scoping review, and an agent-based model. Results: Possible benefits of physical activity promotion were identified for 15 of the 17 SDGs, with more robust evidence supporting benefits for SDGs 3 (good health and well-being), 9 (industry, innovation, and infrastructure), 11 (sustainable cities and communities), 13 (climate action), and 16 (peace, justice, and strong institutions). Current evidence supports prioritizing at-scale physical activity-promoting transport and urban design strategies and community-based programs. Expected physical activity gains are greater for low-and middle-income countries. In high-income countries with high car dependency, physical activity promotion strategies may help reduce air pollution and traffic-related deaths, but shifts toward more active forms of travel and recreation, and climate change mitigation, may require complementary policies that disincentivize driving. Conclusions: The authors call for a synergistic approach to physical activity promotion and SDG achievement, involving multiple sectors beyond health around their goals and values, using physical activity promotion as a lever for a healthier planet.
Nadja Schott and Nancy Getchell
Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) frequently have difficulties performing gross motor skills such as the overarm throw. Our study examines the differences in both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of overarm throwing for accuracy between typically developing (TD) and children with DCD. Methods: A total of 74 children (36 females/38 males) aged between 7 and 11 years, participated in this study. The authors used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—second edition to assess motor impairment. In total, 37 (50%) met the criteria for DCD. Each participant completed 10 overarm throws for accuracy at a target. The authors assessed movement quality using the component approach () and quantity using target accuracy. Results: The analyses revealed significantly lower throwing accuracy in DCD versus TD children. Children with DCD also demonstrated fewer component combinations and lower developmental levels than their TD peers. Finally, product scores tracked with process scores. Discussion: Both qualitative and quantitative measures clearly showed that children with DCD are at a disadvantage in controlling a ball during overarm throwing. They used stability profiles that limited coordination variability. TD participants performed more combinations of higher developmental levels to achieve more accurate throws, suggesting they controlled variability to optimize the accuracy of their throws.