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Accelerometer-Based Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Among Samoan Adults

Nicola L. Hawley, Parmida Zarei, Scott E. Crouter, Mayur M. Desai, Alysa Pomer, Anna C. Rivara, Take Naseri, Muagututia Sefuiva Reupena, Satupaitea Viali, Rachel L. Duckham, and Stephen T. McGarvey

Background: The prevalence of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease in Samoa is among the highest globally. While physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity-related disease, little is known about physical activity levels among adult Samoans. Using wrist-worn accelerometer-based devices, this study aimed to characterize physical activity among Samoan adults. Methods: Samoan adults (n = 385; 55% female, mean [SD] age 52 [10] y) wore Actigraph GT3X+ devices for 7 to 10 days. General linear models were used to examine mean daily minutes of sedentary time, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity by various participant characteristics. Results: Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity did not differ statistically between men (88 [5] min; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80–97) and women (78 [4] min; 95% CI, 70–86; P = .08). Women, however, spent more time than men in light physical activity: 380 (7) minutes (95% CI, 367–393) versus 344 (7) minutes (95% CI, 329–358; P < .001). While there were no differences in physical activity by census region, education, or occupation among women, men in urban areas spent significantly less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity than those in peri-urban and rural areas (P = .015). Women with class II/III obesity spent more time in sedentary activities than those with healthy weight or overweight/class I obesity (P = .048). Conclusions: This study characterizes physical activity among Samoan adults and highlights variation by sex, urbanicity, and weight status. In providing initial device-measured estimates of physical activity in Samoa, this analysis establishes a baseline from which the success of future attempts to intervene on physical activity may be assessed.

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Celebrating 10 Years of the Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA!

Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramírez Varela, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Self-Reported Physical Activity and Mental Health Among Asylum Seekers in a Refugee Camp

Konstantinia Filippou, Florian Knappe, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Ioannis D. Morres, Emmanouil Tzormpatzakis, Elsa Havas, Uwe Pühse, Yannis Theodorakis, and Markus Gerber

Background: Global forced displacement has been rising steeply since 2015 as a result of wars and human rights abuses. Forcibly displaced people are often exposed to physical and mental strain, which can cause traumatic experiences and poor mental health. Physical activity has been linked with better mental health, although such evidence is scarce among those populations. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of self-reported physical activity and fitness with mental health indices among people residing in a refugee camp in Greece as asylum seekers. Methods: Participants were 151 individuals (76 women, 75 men; mean age 28.90 y) displaced from their homes for an average of 32.03 months. Among them, 67% were from Afghanistan and countries from southwest Asia, and 33% from sub-Saharan African countries. Participants completed self-report measures assessing physical activity, fitness, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and well-being. Results: High prevalence of mental health disorder symptoms and poor well-being were identified, with women and Asians showing poorer mental health. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety were related to perceived fitness, but not to self-reported physical activity. Regression analysis showed that perceived fitness (β: 0.34; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.52) and low-intensity physical activity (β: 0.24; 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.009) significantly positively predicted well-being, showing small to medium effect. Conclusions: The findings provide useful insights regarding the link between physical activity and well-being; nevertheless, further research examining objectively measured physical activity is warranted to complement these data and further explore the associations between physical activity and mental health.

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Erratum. Perceived Constraints to Pickleball Participation Among Black Older Adults

Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

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Erratum. Comparison of High-Intensity Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Fat Percentage in Persons With Overweight or Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Erratum. Pandemic-Related Life Events and Physical Inactivity During COVID-19 Among Israeli Adults: The Smoking and Lifestyles in Israel Study

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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The Day-Level Association Between Child Care Attendance and 24-Hour Movement Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children

Hannah Parker, Sarah Burkart, Layton Reesor-Oyer, Lauren von Klinggraeff, Christopher D. Pfledderer, Elizabeth Adams, Robert G. Weaver, Michael W. Beets, and Bridget Armstrong

Background: Twenty-four hour movement behaviors (ie, physical activity [PA], screen time [ST], and sleep) are associated with children’s health outcomes. Identifying day-level contextual factors, such as child care, that positively influence children’s movement behaviors may help identify potential intervention targets, like improving access to child care programs. This study aimed to examine the between- and within-person effects of child care on preschoolers’ 24-hour movement behaviors. Methods: Children (N = 74, 4.7 [0.9] y, 48.9% girls, 63.3% White) wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer on their nondominant wrist 24 hours per day for 14 days to measure PA and sleep. Parents completed surveys each night about their child’s ST and child care attendance that day. Linear mixed effects models predicted day-level 24-hour movement behaviors from hours spent in child care. Results: Children spent an average of 5.0 (2.9) hours per day in child care. For every additional hour of child care above their average, children had 0.3 hours (95% CI, −0.3 to −0.2) less ST that day. Between-person effects showed that compared with children who attended fewer overall hours of child care, children who attended more hours had less overall ST (B = −0.2 h; 95% CI, −0.4 to 0.0). Child care was not significantly associated with PA or sleep. Conclusions: Child care attendance was not associated with 24-hour PA or sleep; however, it was associated with less ST. More research utilizing objective measures of ST and more robust measures of daily schedules or structure is necessary to better understand how existing infrastructure may influence preschool-aged children’s 24-hour movement behaviors. In addition, future research should consider how access to child care may influence child care attendance.

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When Studying Affective Responses to Exercise, the Definition of “Intensity” Must Reference Homeostatic Perturbations: A Retort to Vollaard et al.

Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Mark E. Hartman, and Matthew A. Ladwig

In articles on the methodology of studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval training, we noted that, occasionally, exercise conditions described as involving “high” intensity exhibited heart rates that were only as high as, or even lower than, heart rates recorded during comparator conditions described as being of “moderate” intensity. Drs. Vollaard, Metcalfe, Kinghorn, Jung, and Little suggest instead that exercise intensity in high-intensity interval-training studies can be defined in terms of percentages of peak workload. Although we maintain that defining exercise intensity in terms of percentages of maximal heart rate is a suboptimal way to quantify the degree of homeostatic perturbations in response to exercise, we are unconvinced that definitions of intensity relying solely on workload are appropriate for studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to exercise. The reason is that affect is theorized to have evolved to relay information about homeostatic perturbations to consciousness.

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Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Youth Living in Rural and Urban Canadian Communities: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

Taru Manyanga, Nicole White, Larine Sluggett, Annie Duchesne, David Anekwe, and Chelsea Pelletier

Background: We used nationally representative data to explore associations among location of residence (rural/urban) and perceived barriers to physical activity (PA) in Canadian youth. Methods: We analyzed the 2017 Canadian Community Health Survey, Barriers to Physical Activity Rapid Response data for 12- to 17-year-old youth. Nine items from the survey assessing perceived barriers to PA were combined into 3 barrier domains: resources, motivational, and socioenvironmental. The likelihood of reporting barriers to PA based on rural–urban location was examined using survey-weighted binary logistic regression following a model fitting approach. Sociodemographic factors were modeled as covariates and tested in interaction with location. For each barrier domain, we derived the best-fitting model with fewest terms. Results: There were no location-specific effects related to reporting any barrier or motivation-related PA barriers. We found a sex by location interaction predicting the likelihood of reporting resource-related barriers. Rural boys were less likely to report resource-related barriers compared with urban boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42 [0.20, 0.88]). Rural girls were more likely to report resource-related barriers compared with boys (OR = 3.72 [1.66, 8.30]). Regarding socioenvironmental barriers, we observed a significant body mass index by location interaction demonstrating that rural youth with body mass index outside the “normal range” showed a higher likelihood of reporting socioenvironmental barriers compared with urban youth (OR = 2.38 [1.32, 4.30]). For urban youth, body mass index was unrelated to reporting socioenvironmental barriers (OR = 1.07 [0.67, 1.71]). Conclusion: PA barriers are not universal among Canadian youth. Our analyses highlight the importance of testing interactions in similar studies as well as considering key sociodemographic characteristics when designing interventions.

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Percentage of Peak Workload Is Suitable for Quantification of Exercise Intensity During High-Intensity Intervals: A Comment on Ekkekakis, Hartman, and Ladwig

Niels B.J. Vollaard, Richard S. Metcalfe, Daniel Kinghorn, Mary E. Jung, and Jonathan P. Little