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Mindfulness and Psychological Inflexibility in Portuguese Adolescent Athletes: A Novel Framework for Understanding the Link Between Shame and Sports Anxiety

Sara Margarida Simões de Oliveira, Marina Isabel Vieira Antunes Cunha, António Fernando Boleto Rosado, Mariana Saraiva, and Cláudia Rute Carlos Ferreira

This study aimed to test a comprehensive model in adolescent athletes that explores the effect of shame on sports anxiety and whether psychological inflexibility and mindfulness influence this association. The sample study included 210 young Portuguese athletes from different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 49% of the variance in sports anxiety. Results demonstrated that athletes who experienced higher levels of shame tended to exhibit elevated levels of sports anxiety through lower levels of mindfulness and higher psychological inflexibility. The study offers new empirical data that may be relevant for clinical and sport psychology practitioners. These findings seem to underline the importance of addressing shame and, consequently, sports anxiety in adolescent athletes by developing greater psychological flexibility and, inherently, more mindfulness skills among adolescent athletes who are in a phase of their lives where sport can play a crucial role.

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Erratum. The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma, Exercise Addiction, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Basic Psychological Needs in Türkiye

Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

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Effect of Neurofeedback Training Along With Swimming Exercise on the Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Severity of Dependence, and Craving in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients

Atefeh Fadaei, Mahmoud Najafi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji, Mohammad Ali Tajik-Mansoury, and Mohammad Afkar

This study investigated whether neurofeedback (NFB) training and swimming exercise (Swim) would reduce the stress, anxiety, depression, severity of dependence, and cravings in patients addicted to methamphetamines. Participants were allocated randomly to four groups: control group, NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim. All groups completed the study questionnaire before and after treatment. The NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim groups reported significantly less stress, cravings, and severity of dependence than the control group. The Swim and NFB/Swim groups had significantly lower depression scores than the control group. Also, the NFB/Swim group experienced less anxiety than the control group. However, the NFB/Swim group had lower levels of stress than the Swim group, and lower levels of anxiety and severity of dependence than the NFB group. These findings suggest that NFB training along with swimming exercise was effective in managing methamphetamine-related behavioral disturbances, which may help patients to manage their cravings.

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The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma, Exercise Addiction, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Basic Psychological Needs in Türkiye

Sema Gültekin Arayici and Serap Tekinsav Sutcu

Exercise addiction manifests as a behavioral compulsion where physical activity becomes excessively pursued, leading to potential harm to both physical and mental well-being, as well as interpersonal connections. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The study sample consisted of 386 regular exercisers who completed several questionnaires, including the Childhood Trauma Scale, Exercise Dependence Scale, Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale. The results of the analyses revealed that basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties were significant predictors of exercise addiction symptoms, and they mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that may lead to exercise addiction and have implications for prevention and treatment. In this context, the results and limitations are discussed in light of the relevant literature.

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Early Maladaptive Schemas, Cognitive Fusion, and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Attitudes: The Mediating Role of Muscle Dysmorphia in Iran

Mehdi Ebrahimi, Zahra Zamani, and Ebrahim Bagheri

In recent decades, the interest in having an ideal body in men has caused a pathological tendency to be muscular, followed by a tendency to use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). This study was designed to evaluate the mediating role of muscle dysmorphia in the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and body image-related cognitive fusion with the tendency to use AAS in male athletes. Out of the total number of men referring to fitness clubs in Isfahan, Iran, 474 men were evaluated using a multistage random cluster sampling method. The questionnaires used in this research included the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory, Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire—Body Image, Young Schema Questionnaire—Short Form, and Prototype Willingness Model Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that the relationship of AAS use with body image-related cognitive fusion and the three maladaptive schemas with the mediation of muscle dysmorphia is significant. The present study provides significant implications in the discussion of prevention and treatment of AAS addiction.

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Examining the Feasibility of a Mindfulness Flow Program for the Hong Kong Archers

Ka K. Lo, Mimi M.Y. Tse, Joanne W.Y. Chung, Queenie P.S. Law, and Fenghua Sun

Mindfulness-based interventions have gained popularity among elite athletes, but their effectiveness in enhancing archery performance has been inconsistent. This study examined the feasibility of a 12-week mindfulness flow program (MFP) specifically designed for the archers and assessed the effect of the MFP on shooting performance. Twelve members of the Hong Kong Archery Team voluntarily participated in the present study. Their shooting performance, anxiety, mindfulness, and flow state were assessed before and after the MFP intervention. The results showed that the MFP was highly feasible, with 100% attendance. The athletes highly enjoyed the MFP sessions (mean rating: 7.9/10). Improved shooting performance, increased mindfulness, and flow state levels, and reduced anxiety were also observed after the intervention. These findings suggest a positive reception from and potential benefits for athletes. However, it is suggested to conduct additional research using randomized controlled trials to explore the program’s effects and applicability in enhancing sports performance.

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Physical Activity and Engagement Coping: A Key for Stress-Recovery in Mexican University Students

Erick-Yael Fernández-Barradas, María-Luisa Marván-Garduño, Tamara Cibrián-Llanderal, Felipe Reynoso-Sánchez, and Socorro Herrera-Meza

Physical activity and coping styles are factors that contribute to health status and to the reduction of stress. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of physical activity and coping styles on recovery-stress state among Regular Physical Activity University Students (n = 67) and High-Performance University Athletes (n = 67) from a Mexican university. The results show statistically significant differences in the capacity of recovery from stress in High-Performance University Athletes. Additionally, two positive correlations emerged: one of engagement coping and recovery, and one of disengagement coping and stress. The interaction between engagement coping and physical activity predicted general well-being. In females, the engagement coping style predicts recovery from stress. We concluded that physical activity in combination with an engagement coping style contributes to the development of health in university students.

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Nonaccidental Violence Among Elite Athletes in Finland: Associations With Sport Conditions and Mental Well-Being and Ill-Being

Satu Kaski and Ulla Kinnunen

The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of nonaccidental violence among elite athletes in Finland, the predisposing factors to violence, and its consequences for mental well-being and ill-being. A total of 2,045 Finnish athletes participated in the study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to analyze the associations. The results indicated that 38.8% had experienced psychological abuse, 14.7% bullying, 13.3% gender-based harassment, and 5.5% sexual harassment. Female and younger athletes reported more violent experiences than male and older athletes. A team’s safe atmosphere and readiness to act protected athletes from nonaccidental violence, whereas the coach did not play a role. Nonaccidental violence, particularly psychological abuse, was associated with reduced mental well-being and increased ill-being. Our results suggest that it is worth investing in the team’s mutual relationships and safe cooperation when ensuring appropriate behavior and preventing nonaccidental violence among athletes.

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Erratum. Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Sportspersonship in Recreational Sport

Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

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Eras of Burnout Research: What Does the Past Tell Us About the Future of Burnout in Sport?

J.D. DeFreese, Daniel J. Madigan, and Henrik Gustafsson