Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic condition that can cause multiple complications due to poor glycemic control. Self-management plays a crucial role in the management of T2DM. Lifestyle modifications, including physical activity (PA), are fundamental for self-management. This study explored the knowledge, perception, practice, enablers, and barriers of PA among individuals with T2DM. Methods: A mixed-method study was conducted among individuals with T2DM in Udupi taluk, India. A cross-sectional survey (n = 467) followed by an in-depth interview (n = 35) was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis, respectively. Results: About half (48.8%) of the participants engaged in PA of which 28.3% had an adequate score in the practice of PA. Walking was the most preferred mode. Self-realization, Comprehension, perception, and source of information, PA training, Current PA practices, enablers and barriers for PA were 6 themes derived under knowledge, perception, and practice of PA. Conclusion: Despite knowing the importance of PA, compliance with PA was poor. The personal/internal, societal, and external factors constituted the trinity of barriers and enablers in compliance with PA. Behavioral changes, societal changes, policy initiatives, and PA training in health care settings may enhance PA practice among individuals with T2DM.
Barriers and Enablers for Physical Activity Engagement Among Individuals From India With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mixed-Method Study
Prabhath Matpady, Arun G. Maiya, Pallavi P. Saraswat, Chythra R. Rao, Mamatha Shivananda Pai, Shekarappa D. Anupama, Jeevan K. Shetty, and Shashikiran Umakanth
Physical Activity Levels, Correlates, and All-Cause Mortality Risk in People Living With Different Health Conditions
Jenny M. Marks-Vieveen, Léonie Uijtdewilligen, Ehsan Motazedi, Dominique P.M. Stijnman, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Adrie J. Bouma, Laurien M. Buffart, Vincent de Groot, Ellen de Hollander, Judith G.M. Jelsma, Johan de Jong, Helco G. van Keeken, Leonie A. Krops, Marike van der Leeden, Stephan A. Loer, Willem van Mechelen, Femke van Nassau, Joske Nauta, Evert Verhagen, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Lucas H.V. van der Woude, Johannes Zwerver, Rienk Dekker, and Hidde P. van der Ploeg
Background: To better understand physical activity behavior and its health benefits in people living with health conditions, we studied people with and without 20 different self-reported health conditions with regard to (1) their physical activity levels, (2) factors correlated with these physical activity levels, and (3) the association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. Methods: We used a subsample (n = 88,659) of the Lifelines cohort study from the Netherlands. For people living with and without 20 different self-reported health conditions, we studied the aforementioned factors in relation to physical activity. Physical activity was assessed with the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity Questionnaire, and mortality data were obtained from the Dutch death register. Results: People with a reported health condition were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines than people without a reported health condition (odds ratios ranging from 0.55 to 0.89). Higher body mass index and sitting time, and lower self-rated health, physical functioning, and education levels were associated with lower odds of meeting physical activity guidelines across most health conditions. Finally, we found a protective association between physical activity and all-cause mortality in both people living with and without different health conditions. Conclusion: People living with different health conditions are generally less physically active compared with people living without a health condition. Both people living with and without self-reported health conditions share a number of key factors associated with physical activity levels. We also observed the expected protective association between physical activity and all-cause mortality.
After-School Activities of Japanese Elementary School Children: Comparison of Children Who Attend Lessons and Cram Schools With Those Who Do Not
Background: This study examined the after-school activities of Japanese elementary school children in which little information is available for understanding the process by which participation in organized activities leads to the decrease in children’s independent mobility. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four mothers of elementary school children participated in an online survey. The mothers responded to the questions on the number of lessons (or cram schools) their children attended weekdays, as well as their children’s behavior after classes, and parents providing transportation when their children go out to play. Results: The proportion of children attending lessons and/or cram schools increased as their grades progressed. A significant interaction existed between the degree of parental transportation and grade in terms of whether or not the children attended lessons and/or cram schools. Parental involvement included pick up or drop-off for a large percentage of younger children without lessons, whereas the degree of parental involvement was greater for older children attending lessons. In other words, parents of children without attending lessons or cram schools tended to allow children to engage in independent activities when they reached the higher grades, whereas parents of children who frequently attended lessons and cram schools tended to remain involved in transporting their children, even when they reached the higher grades. Conclusions: The results suggested that the participation of children in organized activities leads to a routine of parental pickup and/or drop-off, which renders difficult the facilitation of opportunities for children to independently participate in play activities.
Erratum. Quantifying Area-Level Physical Activity Offerings in Social Context: A Novel Concept That Goes Beyond Walkability and Access to Open Spaces
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Physical Activity Policies at National and Subnational Levels: A Study in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Mexico
Juliana Mejía Grueso, Michael Pratt, Eugen Resendiz, Deborah Salvo, Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Nubia Yaneth Ruiz Gómez, Rafael Alexander Leandro Gómez, Inés Revuelta Sánchez, Gerardo Alonso Araya Vargas, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Raúl Francisco Pérez Tasigchana, Alejandra Jáuregui, Pedro C. Hallal, and Andrea Ramírez Varela
Background: National physical activity (PA) policy processes are only beginning to be studied in Latin America, and little attention has focused at the subnational level. This study examined national–subnational relations in the policy process (agenda setting, policy formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation) in selected Latin American countries. Methods: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity’s (GoPA!) INTEGRATE-PA-Pol tool was applied in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Mexico. Data were collected in matched pairs of the capital plus one noncapital city among national and subnational policymakers (n = 27), previously identified by the GoPA! Country Contacts. PA policy development and implementation were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-three (response rate = 85.2%) informants provided data, mainly from the health sector (52.2%), followed by the sport (26.1%), transport (13.0%), and education (8.7%) sectors. Most informants reported that their countries had a current PA policy embedded within noncommunicable diseases prevention plans (46.2%), other plans (46.2%), or obesity prevention/management/control plans (7.7%). Respondents at the subnational level rated PA promotion as central (64.3%), while the national-level role was important but not central (75.0%). National and subnational policymakers indicated low-to-little involvement in the other level’s PA policy processes across the 5 policy stages. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that collecting national and subnational PA policy data across countries with the active collaboration of the GoPA! network was feasible. We also successfully identified governmental interactions throughout the PA policy process, suggesting suboptimal engagement between national and subnational levels.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning—Powerful Yet Underutilized Tools and Algorithms in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Research
Vahid Farrahi and Philip Clare
The Physical Activity Advice Continuum—A Guide for Physical Activity Promotion in Health Care
Nicole Freene, Stephen Barrett, Emily R. Cox, Jessica Hill, Roger Lay, Jessica Seymour, Kimberley Szeto, and Sjaan R. Gomersall
The Legacy of Dr. Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III From the Perspective of His Mentees
Gregory Knell, Kathryn Burford, Tammy Calise, Erin E. Dooley, Augusto Ferreira de Moraes, Leigh Ann Ganzar, Ho Han, Natalia Heredia, Alejandra Jáuregui, Ashleigh Johnson, Kevin Lanza, Eileen Nehme, Hildi Nicksic, Abiodun O. Oluyomi, Anna Porter, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Robertson, Deborah Salvo, Timothy Walker, and Yuzi Zhang
Erratum. Patterns and Correlates of Participation in a Weekly Mass Participation Physical Activity Event, parkrun, in Australia, 2011–2020
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Gender Differences in Caregivers’ Attitudes to Risky Child Play in Britain: A Cross-Sectional Study
Andrea D. Smith, Helen F. Dodd, Luiza Ricardo, and Esther van Sluijs
Background: This study examines gender differences in parental attitudes toward risky play for 5- to 11-year-old boys and girls in Britain. Methods: Analyses use data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative British Child Play Survey. Survey respondents were caregivers of primary-school-aged children living in Britain. Parent self-reported their risk tolerance in play via the Tolerance for Risk in Play Scale (TRiPS) and the Risk Engagement and Protection Survey (REPS). The REPS includes subscales that assess caregiver attitudes around “Protection from Injury” (PFI) and “Engagement with Risk” (EWR) in relation to children’s play. Multiple linear regression compared caregiver gender differences in TRiPS, REPS-PFI, and REPS-EWR at the item level, and overall. Associations between child gender and these scales were also examined. Results: Among 1919 caregivers, no significant gender differences emerged in mean TRiPS (P = .72), REPS-EWR (P = .58), and REPS-PFI (P = .34) scores. Activity-specific differences were evident in caregivers’ tolerance for individual risky play activities (15/31 activities). Parents of boys exhibited higher risk tolerance (B = −4.48, P < .01) and willingness for their child to engage in risky play (B = −0.63, P < .01) than parents of girls. Conclusions: While there was no difference between male and female caregivers overall attitudes, gender differences were prominent for specific play activities and attitudes, with male caregivers demonstrating higher tolerance for the riskiest activities. Parents of boys expressed more permissive attitudes toward engagement in risky play. Further work is needed to identify why there is gender-related variation in these attitudes and should be considered in interventions that support parents in enabling adventurous play opportunities for children.