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Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne

This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.

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Debra Kriger, Amélie Keyser-Verreault, Janelle Joseph, and Danielle Peers

Intersectional approaches are needed in sport research and administration to create significant changes in access, participation, and leadership. The operationalizing intersectionality framework—graphically represented as a wheel with spokes and points of traction—offers a nonexhaustive, evolving structure that can facilitate contextual, deliberate actions to disrupt overlapping systems of oppression. The framework was assembled to guide E-Alliance, the gender equity in sport in Canada research hub, in embodying its commitment to intersectional approaches and designed for broader application to sport. Current gender equity efforts mostly continue to prioritize the knowledge and needs of White, middle–upper-class, nondisabled, not fat, heteronormative, binary, cisgender women and have yet to achieve parity. Acting meaningfully on commitments to intersectional approaches means focusing on how axes work together and influence each other. The framework can help advance cultural sport psychology and ultimately improve athletic well-being.

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Michael J. Asmussen, Glen A. Lichtwark, and Jayishni N. Maharaj

Humans have the remarkable ability to run over variable terrains. During locomotion, however, humans are unstable in the mediolateral direction and this instability must be controlled actively—a goal that could be achieved in more ways than one. Walking research indicates that the subtalar joint absorbs energy in early stance and returns it in late stance, an attribute that is credited to the tibialis posterior muscle-tendon unit. The purpose of this study was to determine how humans (n = 11) adapt to mediolateral perturbations induced by custom-made 3D-printed “footwear” that either enhanced or reduced pronation of the subtalar joint (modeled as motion in 3 planes) while running (3 m/s). In all conditions, the subtalar joint absorbed energy (ie, negative mechanical work) in early stance followed by an immediate return of energy (ie, positive mechanical work) in late stance, demonstrating a “spring-like” behavior. These effects increased and decreased in footwear conditions that enhanced or reduced pronation (P ≤ .05), respectively. Of the recorded muscles, the tibialis posterior (P ≤ .05) appeared to actively change its activation in concert with the changes in joint energetics. We suggest that the “spring-like” behavior of the subtalar joint may be an inherent function that enables the lower limb to respond to mediolateral instabilities during running.

Open access

J. Ty Hopkins and Christopher D. Ingersoll

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Jessa M. Buchman-Pearle and Stacey M. Acker

Specific participant characteristics may be leveraged to dictate marker placements which reduce soft tissue artifact; however, a better understanding of the relationships between participant characteristics and soft tissue artifact are first required. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy in which measures of whole-body and thigh anthropometry could predict mislocation error of the hip joint center, tracked using skin-mounted marker clusters. Fifty participants completed squatting and kneeling, while pelvis and lower limb motion were recorded. The effect of soft tissue artifact was estimated from 6 rigid thigh marker clusters by evaluating their ability to track the position of the hip joint center most like the pelvis cluster. Eighteen backward stepwise linear regressions were performed using 10 anthropometric measures as independent variables and the mean of the peak difference between the thigh and pelvis cluster-tracked hip joint centers. Fourteen models significantly predicted error with low to moderate fit (R = .38–.67), explaining 14% to 45% of variation. Partial correlations indicated that soft tissue artifact may increase with soft tissue volume and be altered by local soft tissue composition. However, it is not recommended that marker placement be adjusted based on anthropometry alone.

Open access

Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli

There is a lack of conceptual and theoretical clarity among clinicians and researchers regarding the control of motor actions based on the use of the term “motor control.” It is important to differentiate control processes from observations of motor output to improve communication and to make progress in understanding motor disorders and their remediation. This article clarifies terminology related to theoretical concepts underlying the control of motor actions, emphasizing how the term “motor control” is applied in neurorehabilitation. Two major opposing theoretical frameworks are described (i.e., direct and indirect), and their strengths and pitfalls are discussed. Then, based on the proposition that sensorimotor rehabilitation should be predicated on one comprehensive theory instead of an eclectic mix of theories and models, several solutions are offered about how to address controversies in motor learning, optimality, and adaptability of movement.

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Terry L. Grindstaff, L. Colby Mangum, and Michael Voight

Injuries involving the lumbopelvic region (ie, lumbar spine, pelvis, hip) are common across the lifespan and include pathologies such as low back pain, femoroacetabular impingement syndrome, labrum tear, and osteoarthritis. Joint injury is known to result in an arthrogenic muscle response which contributes to muscle weakness and altered movement patterns. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the arthrogenic muscle response that occurs across lumbopelvic region pathologies, identify methods to quantify muscle function, and propose suggestions for future research. While each lumbopelvic region pathology is unique, there are a few common impairments and a relative consistent arthrogenic muscle response that occurs across the region. Hip muscle weakness and hip joint range of motion limitations occur with both lumbar spine and hip pathologies, and individuals with low back pain are known to demonstrate inhibition of the transversus abdominis and multifidus. Assessment of muscle inhibition is often limited to research laboratory settings, but dynamometers, ultrasound imaging, and electromyography offer clinical capacity to quantify muscle function and inform treatment pathways. Future studies should systematically determine the arthrogenic muscle response across multiple muscle groups and the timeline for changes in muscle function and determine whether disinhibitory modalities improve functional outcomes beyond traditional treatment approaches.

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William Anderst, Shaquille Charles, Milad Zarei, Ashika Mani, Naomi Frankston, Elliott Hammersley, Gehui Zhang, MaCalus Hogan, and Robert T. Krafty

Studies of human movement usually collect data from multiple repetitions of a task and use the average of all movement trials to approximate the typical kinematics or kinetics pattern for each individual. Few studies report the expected accuracy of these estimated mean kinematics or kinetics waveforms for each individual. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how simultaneous confidence bands, which is an approach to quantify uncertainty across an entire waveform based on limited data, can be used to calculate margin of error (MOE) for waveforms. Bilateral plantar pressure data were collected from 70 participants as they walked over 4 surfaces for an average of at least 300 steps per surface. The relationship between MOE and the number of steps included in the analysis was calculated using simultaneous confidence bands, and 3 methods commonly used for pointwise estimates: intraclass correlation, sequential averaging, and T-based MOE. The conventional pointwise approaches underestimated the number of trials required to estimate biomechanical waveforms within a desired MOE. Simultaneous confidence bands are an objective approach to more accurately estimate the relationship between the number of trials collected and the MOE in estimating typical biomechanical waveforms.

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Seong-won Han, Andrew Sawatsky, and Walter Herzog

The purpose of this study was to quantify the contribution of the individual quadriceps muscles to patellar tracking. The individual and/or combined quadriceps muscles were activated in rabbits (n = 6) during computer-controlled flexion/extension of the knee. Three-dimensional patellar tracking was measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris when activated alone and when activated simultaneously at different frequencies, producing a range of knee extensor torques. Patellar tracking changed substantially as a function of knee extensor torque and differed between muscles. Specifically, when all quadriceps muscles were activated simultaneously, the patella shifted more medially and proximally and rotated and tilted more medially compared with when vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were activated alone (P < .05), whereas vastus medialis activation alone produced a similar tracking pattern to that observed when all quadriceps muscles were activated simultaneously. Furthermore, patellar tracking for a given muscle condition shifted more medially and proximally and rotated and tilted more medially with increasing knee extensor torques across the entire range of knee joint angles. The authors conclude that patellar tracking depends crucially on knee extensor force/torque and that vastus medialis affects patellar tracking in a distinctly different way than vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, which produce similar tracking patterns.