Guan-Bo Chen, Che-Wei Lin, Hung-Ya Huang, Yi-Jhen Wu, Hung-Tzu Su, Shu-Fen Sun, and Sheng-Hui Tuan
Because of a shortage of health care providers, providing rehabilitation in health care facilities is difficult. Virtual reality–based rehabilitation is effective in older populations. There are only a few studies among patients with sarcopenia. This is a quasi-experimental, single-group, pretest–posttest design evaluating the clinical effectiveness of virtual reality–based progressive resistance training among residents aged over 60 years with sarcopenia in rural care facilities. The authors used Oculus Rift with headsets to provide the virtual reality–based progressive resistance training. The authors administered the program twice per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were dominant handgrip strength, walking speed, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index. Data from 30 participants were analyzed. Significant improvements in handgrip strength and walking speed were observed. Although an increasing trend in appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was observed, it did not reach statistical significance. The authors concluded that the virtual reality–based progressive resistance training is partially effective in older sarcopenic adults in health care facilities.
Karin Weman Josefsson
Sweden has adopted a somewhat different approach to handle the corona pandemic, which has been widely debated both on national and international levels. The Swedish model involves more individual responsibility and reliance on voluntary civic liability than law enforcement, while common measures in other countries are based on more controlling strategies, such as restrictive lockdowns, quarantines, closed borders, and mandatory behavior constraints. This commentary aims to give a brief overview of the foundations of the Swedish model as well as a discussion on how and why it has been adopted in the Swedish society based on Swedish legislations, culture, and traditions. Finally, perspectives on how the Swedish model could be connected to the tenets of self-determination theory will be discussed.
Andrea Ramírez Varela and Michael Pratt
In 2012, the Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was established to provide information that would enable countries to initiate or improve research capacity, surveillance systems, program development, and policymaking to increase physical activity levels. Findings from the first GoPA! Country Cards showed an unequal distribution of physical activity surveillance, research productivity, and policy development and implementation around the world. Regular global monitoring of these factors, especially in countries with the largest data gaps, was recommended to combat the global pandemic of physical inactivity. After 6 years and using standardized methods, GoPA! is launching the second set of Country Cards based on data up to 2019 from 217 countries. Overall results showed that periodic national surveillance of physical activity was less common in low-income countries, compared with middle- and high-income countries. Large inequities were seen with more than a 50-fold difference in publications between high- and low-income countries and 32% of the countries worldwide had no physical activity policy. GoPA! has a critical role in facilitating evidence-based physical activity promotion building on international guidelines and the World Health Organization Global Action Plan. GoPA! will continue to monitor progress as we battle the global pandemic of physical inactivity.
Catherine E. Draper, Karen Milton, and Jasper Schipperijn
Kasper Salin, Anna Kankaanpää, Xiaolin Yang, Tuija H. Tammelin, Costan G. Magnussen, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Jorma S.A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, and Mirja Hirvensalo
Background: To examine if major life changes over a 4-year period among 34- to 49-year-old adults (mean = 41.8, SD = 5.0) were associated with a change in physical activity in men (37.7%) and women (62.3%). Methods: Daily steps and aerobic steps (steps that lasted for at least 10 min without interruption at a pace of >60 steps/min) were collected from 1051 participants in 2007 and 2011. Changes in marital status, work status, and residence and the birth of a child were determined from both time points. A latent change score model was used to examine mean changes in daily total steps, aerobic steps, and nonaerobic steps (total steps minus aerobic steps). Results: Women who had a first child in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .001). Men who divorced in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .020), whereas women who recoupled decreased their total steps (P = .030). Conclusions: Counseling for parents having a first child on how to increase physical activity in their everyday life could potentially have an influence on an individual’s physical activity.
Antje Ullrich, Sophie Baumann, Lisa Voigt, Ulrich John, and Sabina Ulbricht
Background: The purposes of this study were to examine accelerometer measurement reactivity (AMR) in sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA), and accelerometer wear time in 2 measurement periods and to quantify AMR as a human-related source of bias for the reproducibility of SB and PA estimates. Methods: In total, 136 participants (65% women, mean age = 54.6 y) received 7-day accelerometry at the baseline and after 12 months. Latent growth models were used to identify AMR. Intraclass correlations were calculated to examine the reproducibility using 2-level mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results: Within each 7-day accelerometry assessment, the participants increased their time spent in SB (b = 2.4 min/d; b = 3.8 min/d) and reduced their time spent in light PA (b = −2.0 min/d; b = −3.2 min/d), but did not change moderate to vigorous PA. The participants reduced their wear time (b = −5.2 min/d) only at the baseline. The intraclass correlations ranged from .42 for accelerometer wear time to .74 for SB. The AMR was not identified as a source of bias in any regression model. Conclusions: AMR may influence SB and PA estimates differentially. Although 7-day accelerometry seems to be a reproducible measure, our findings highlight accelerometer wear time as a crucial confounder in analyzing SB and PA data.
Richard Tahtinen, Hafrun Kristjansdottir, Daniel T. Olason, and Robert Morris
The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of specific symptoms of depression in athletes and to test differences in the likelihood of athletes exhibiting these symptoms across age, sex, type of team sport, and level of competition. A sample of Icelandic male and female team sport athletes (N = 894, 18–42 years) was included in the study. Of the athletes exhibiting clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 37.5% did not exhibit core symptoms of depression. Compared with males, females were significantly more likely to exhibit depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness/guilt, and problems with sleep, fatigue, appetite, and concentration. Within males, differences were mostly related to neurovegetative aspects of depression (sleep and appetite), whereas in females, differences were related to cognitive/emotional aspects (e.g., depressed mood, guilt/worthlessness). The findings underline the importance of exploring specific symptoms of depression to provide a richer understanding of depressive symptomology in athletes.
Changwook Kim, Jinwon Kim, and Brijesh Thapa
Background: The examination of the longitudinal effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on mental well-being is important, but previous studies have typically been limited by their use of a cross-sectional approach. This study empirically examined how LTPA intensity was associated with changes in distinct functions of mental well-being (eg, emotional, psychological, social) over time, and vice versa. Methods: Parallel latent growth curve modeling in combination with propensity score matching analysis was conducted. Data were derived from a sample of adults from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study. Results: The results showed that the initial level of moderate LTPA at the baseline was associated with growth in psychological and social functioning over time, and vice versa. However, vigorous LTPA at the baseline was related only to growth in emotional functioning over time. Conclusion: The longitudinal association between LTPA and mental well-being had different matching mechanisms for LTPA intensities and their relation to distinct functioning for mental well-being. The findings contribute to an enhanced understanding of LTPA’s longitudinal effect on mental well-being.