Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Jos J. de Koning
Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Jacob Walther, Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen, and Thomas Haugen
Purpose: The concept of training quality reflects that the effect of training is dependent on more than the mere product of training load (eg, duration, intensity, frequency). The aims of this commentary are to (1) propose a practice-oriented framework to describe training quality and its general and context-dependent characteristics and (2) discuss how athletes and coaches can work to improve training quality. Conclusions: Training quality can be viewed from different perspectives. The holistic dimension includes the entire training process (goal setting, gap analysis, application of training principles and methods, etc), while a narrower dimension encompasses the specific training sessions and how they are executed in relation to the intended purpose. To capture the varying contexts, we define training quality as the degree of excellence related to how the training process or training sessions are executed to optimize adaptations and, thereby, improve overall performance. Although training quality is challenging to quantify, we argue that identification and assessment of quality indicators will increase our scientific understanding and consequently help coaches and athletes to improve training quality. We propose that the physical, technical, and psychological factors of training quality can be improved through an individualized learning process of systematic planning, execution, and debriefing. However, assessment tools should be identified and scientifically validated across different training sessions and sports. We encourage further interventions to improve training quality.
Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Jennifer Tomasone, Amy Latimer-Cheung, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Katerina Disimino, Victoria Larocca, Lauren Tristani, Kathleen Martin Ginis, Jennifer Leo, Leigh Vanderloo, Dave Sora, and Archie Allison
Parents of children and youth with disabilities (CYD) have expressed unique physical activity (PA) information needs. Community-based organizations (CBOs) require assistance to meet these needs. Guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II, this project established evidence-informed recommendations for developing PA information targeting families of CYD. This process involved a systematic scoping review to inform draft recommendations (k = 23), which were revised via a consensus meeting with researchers, knowledge users from CBOs, and families of CYD. Broader consultation with CBO knowledge users informed the final recommendations (k = 5) that fit within the following categories: (a) language and definitions, (b) program information, (c) benefits of PA, (d) barriers to PA, and (e) PA ideas and self-regulation tools. CBOs are encouraged to consider these recommendations when developing PA information for families of CYD. Future research will focus on the development of knowledge products to disseminate the recommendations to CBOs and support implementation.
Kwok Ng, Cindy Sit, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Salomé Aubert, Heidi Stanish, Yeshayahu Hutzler, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mary-Grace Kang, José Francisco López-Gil, Eun-Young Lee, Piritta Asunta, Jurate Pozeriene, Piotr Kazimierz Urbański, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, and John J. Reilly
This is an overview of the results from 14 countries or jurisdictions in a Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents with disabilities. The methodology was based on the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance’s Global Matrix 4.0. Data were aligned with 10 indicators (Overall PA, Organized Sport, Active Play, Active Transport, Physical Fitness, Sedentary Behavior, Family & Peers, Schools, Community & Environment, and Government) to produce Para Report Cards. Subsequently, there were 139 grades; 45% were incomplete, particularly for Active Play, Physical Fitness, and Family & Peers. Collectively, Overall PA was graded the lowest (F), with Schools and Government the highest (C). Disability-specific surveillance and research gaps in PA were apparent in 14 countries or jurisdictions around the world. More coverage of PA data in Para Report Cards is needed to serve as an advocacy tool to promote PA among children and adolescents with disabilities.
Scott A. Conger, Lara M. Tuthill, and Mindy L. Millard-Stafford
Whether caffeine (CAF) increases fat metabolism remains debatable. Using systematic review coupled with meta-analysis, our aim was to determine effects of CAF on fat metabolism and the relevant factors moderating this effect. Electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched using the following string: CAF AND (fat OR lipid) AND (metabolism OR oxidation). A meta-analytic approach aggregated data from 94 studies examining CAF’s effect on fat metabolism assessed by different biomarkers. The overall effect size (ES) was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.30, 0.47], p < .001), indicating a small effect of CAF to increase fat metabolism; however, ES was significantly higher (p < .001) based on blood biomarkers (e.g., free fatty acids, glycerol) (ES = 0.55, 95% CI [0.43, 0.67]) versus expired gas analysis (respiratory exchange ratio, calculated fat oxidation) (ES = 0.26, 95% CI [0.16, 0.37]), although both were greater than zero. Fat metabolism increased to a greater extent (p = .02) during rest (ES = 0.51, 95% CI [0.41, 0.62]) versus exercise (ES = 0.35, 95% CI [0.26, 0.44]) across all studies, although ES was not different for studies reporting both conditions (ES = 0.49 and 0.44, respectively). There were no subgroup differences based on participants’ fitness level, sex, or CAF dosage. CAF ingestion increases fat metabolism but is more consistent with blood biomarkers versus whole-body gas exchange measures. CAF has a small effect during rest across all studies, although similar to exercise when compared within the same study. CAF dosage did not moderate this effect.
Tom P. Aird, Andrew J. Farquharson, Kate M. Bermingham, Aifric O’Sullivan, Janice E. Drew, and Brian P. Carson
Endurance training in fasted conditions (FAST) induces favorable skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations compared with carbohydrate feeding (CHO), manifesting in improved exercise performance over time. Sprint interval training (SIT) is a potent metabolic stimulus, however nutritional strategies to optimize adaptations to SIT are poorly characterized. Here we investigated the efficacy of FAST versus CHO SIT (4–6 × 30-s Wingate sprints interspersed with 4-min rest) on muscle metabolic, serum metabolome and exercise performance adaptations in a double-blind parallel group design in recreationally active males. Following acute SIT, we observed exercise-induced increases in pan-acetylation and several genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and NAD+-biosynthesis, along with favorable regulation of PDK4 (p = .004), NAMPT (p = .0013), and NNMT (p = .001) in FAST. Following 3 weeks of SIT, NRF2 (p = .029) was favorably regulated in FAST, with augmented pan-acetylation in CHO but not FAST (p = .033). SIT induced increases in maximal citrate synthase activity were evident with no effect of nutrition, while 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not change. Despite no difference in the overall serum metabolome, training-induced changes in C3:1 (p = .013) and C4:1 (p = .010) which increased in FAST, and C16:1 (p = .046) and glutamine (p = .021) which increased in CHO, were different between groups. Training-induced increases in anaerobic (p = .898) and aerobic power (p = .249) were not influenced by nutrition. These findings suggest some beneficial muscle metabolic adaptations are evident in FAST versus CHO SIT following acute exercise and 3 weeks of SIT. However, this stimulus did not manifest in differential exercise performance adaptations.