Background: Balancing performance can be affected by regular and high-level athletic training, which has not been fully explored in synchronized ice skaters. This study aimed to analyze the dynamic balancing performance by assessing the principal and compensatory movements performed during the sudden provocation tests and evaluating the parameters that characterize the platform’s motion. Method: Twelve young female synchronized ice skaters and 12 female age-matched controls participated. Sudden provocation tests were completed three times in bipedal stance and in single-leg stances, and sport-specific fatigue session was inserted between the repetitions. Results: Significantly more time was necessary to recover balance for both groups after the fatiguing sessions (p < .05). Interestingly, skaters performed less effectively in the simplest condition (bipedal stance) than the control group (p < .05). The principal component analysis showed that the first principal movement was the same for both groups. The skater group used the upper body and arms more often to compensate, while the control group’s recovery strategy consisted mainly of abduction of the elevated leg. The damping ratio and the relative variance of the first principal movement showed a negative correlation (p < .05), suggesting that those with superior balancing effectiveness recruited more compensatory movements.
Zsófia Pálya, Bálint Petró, and Rita M. Kiss
Maarten A. Immink
Janelle Joseph, Bahar Tajrobehkar, Gabriela Estrada, and Zeana Hamdonah
Background: This scoping literature review examines: What literature exists about the sport and physical activity experiences of racialized cis and trans women, adolescents, and girls in Canada? Methods: English language peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and gray literature published January 1, 2000, up to May 31, 2020, were examined. The databases used were SPORTDiscus via EBSCO, Sociological Abstracts, Sport Medicine and Education Index, and Google Scholar. The 42 studies and 15 gray literatures found included 1430 participants explicitly specified as racialized women/girl participants. Results: There was a paucity of literature on the topic overall with none (n = 0) focused on experiences of racialized trans women. The limited research notes some successful programs that address racialized women’s needs. However, the research also shows widespread experiences of discrimination against women based on racial group and language and limited access to culturally relevant or welcoming sporting opportunities, such as women-only programs and spaces. Conclusions: Much more research should be done to disaggregate “immigrants” into specific racial and ethnic groups, attend to intersectional identities and barriers, understand a wide range of involvement (eg, including coaching, high performance sport, recreation, exercise, university sport, mentorship programs), document racism and White privilege, and describe the joys of participation in sport for racialized women.
Hannah Bennett, Robert Owens, and Tanya Prewitt-White
Kadia Saint-Onge, Paquito Bernard, Célia Kingsbury, and Janie Houle
Few studies have focused on older public housing tenants’ perceptions of physical activity. Greater understanding of how they define, appreciate, and engage in physical activity could lead to better targeted promotion and reduced health inequalities for this subgroup of the population. We conducted 26 walk-along interviews with older public housing tenants in Montreal (Canada). Tenants were aged 60–93 years and lived in either one of three study sites including a commercial, a residential, and a mixed land-use area. Physical activity was described as a multidimensional construct through six interdependent dimensions: physiological, emotional, interpersonal, occupational, intellectual, and existential. Participants perceived physical activity as having potential for both well-being and ill-being. Perceptions of physical activity were a function of age, physical capacity, gender, culture, revenue, and relation to community. These results support using a life-course perspective and a broader definition in promoting physical activity to older public housing tenants.
Ding Ding, Valerie Carson, Ruth F. Hunter, Alejandra Jáuregui, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Eun-Young Lee, Jacqueline L. Mair, Gregore Iven Mielke, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Andrea Ramírez Varela, Deborah Salvo, Katja Siefken, Rafael M. Tassitano, Esther van Sluijs, and Pedro C. Hallal
Gabrielle McNamara, Caroline Robertson, Tegan Hartmann, and Rachel Rossiter
Regular exercise is reported to improve depressive symptoms and quality of life for people experiencing mental illness. For older adults, including strength and balance can also decrease falls. Mental health services seldom include funding for Accredited Exercise Physiologist programs. A 9-week Accredited Exercise Physiologist-led program for older adults receiving mental health treatment with a community Older People’s Mental Health Service was trialed in regional Australia. This clinician-conceived small-scale feasibility study utilized a two-phase concurrent triangulation mixed-method design to evaluate physical and psychological program outcomes and identify factors related to engaging in physical activity. This tailored exercise program led to improvements in measures of psychological distress and physical and psychological function. These changes corresponded with participants identifying benefits of exercising as a group of adults living with mental illness. Such findings suggest a supervised, individualized program for older mental health consumers confers physical and psychological benefits; however, further research evaluating exercise interventions with this population is required.
Diego Júnio da Silva, Arthur Oliveira Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho, and José Cazuza de Farias Júnior
Background: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the results and assess the methodological quality of studies that analyzed the relation between physical education participation, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in schoolchildren. Methods: Searches were conducted for original cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish between January 2007 and August 2020, on the PubMed, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Education Resources Information Center, and Scopus databases. Results: A total of 60 articles (68 independent samples) were included in the revision (58 cross-sectional and 2 longitudinal observational studies). With regard to methodological quality, 27%, 52%, and 21% of the studies were classified as high, moderate, and low methodological quality, respectively. Physical activity was analyzed in 93% of the studies (n = 56) and sedentary behavior in 33% (n = 20). The higher frequency of physical education participation was associated with higher physical activity levels (56 of 68 results – 54/65 cross-sectional and 2/3 longitudinal studies) and less sedentary behavior (14 of 24 results), even after stratifying analyses by type and methodological quality. Conclusion: Physical education class participation may contribute to students being physically more active and less likely to engage in sedentary behavior.