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Maurice Douryang, Kelly J. Tsafack Nanfosso, and Yagaï Bouba

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Niels Boysen Feddersen

There has been a paucity of literature discussing how to address consent procedures as part of ethics, practitioner development, and best practice in applied sport psychology. Several researchers have addressed ethical challenges (e.g., out-of-session contact, overidentification, time, and space). However, none have substantially considered the sport-specific issues related to consent, which sits at the heart of best practice. The scarcity of discussing consent is limiting sport psychology’s potential to establish itself as a more recognized profession. This article highlights some contextual issues that challenge the idea and efficacy of informed consent. It proposes adapting consent procedures in the collaboration between sport psychology practitioners and clients to better address the current contextual challenges in applied sport psychology. In doing so, the current paper introduces Empowered Consent, which is specifically designed to empower athletes and address challenges related to choosing interventions, contractual obligations, visibility in the environment, and staff trying to gain insights into confidential information. The author offers a model to enhance applied practice for those collaborating with athletes and other clients in sport.

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Amirali Hajebi, Maryam Nasserinejad, Sina Azadnajafabad, Erfan Ghasemi, Negar Rezaei, Moein Yoosefi, Azin Ghamari, Mohammad Keykhaei, Ali Ghanbari, Esmaeil Mohammadi, Mohammad-Mahdi Rashidi, Fateme Gorgani, Mana Moghimi, Alireza Namazi Shabestari, and Farshad Farzadfar

Background: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity in all districts of Iran and the disparities between subgroups defined by various measures. Methods: Small area estimation method was employed to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity in districts based on the remaining districts in which data on the level of physical inactivity were available. Various comparisons on the estimations were done based on socioeconomic, sex, and geographical stratifications to determine the disparities of physical inactivity among districts of Iran. Results: All districts of Iran had a higher prevalence of physical inactivity compared with the world average. The estimated prevalence of physical inactivity among all men in all districts was 46.8% (95% uncertainty interval, 45.9%–47.7%). The highest and lowest estimated disparity ratio of physical inactivity were 1.95 and 1.14 in males, and 2.25 and 1.09 in females, respectively. Females significantly had a higher prevalence of 63.5% (62.7%–64.3%). Among both sexes, the poor population and urban residents significantly had higher prevalence of physical inactivity than rich population and rural residents, respectively. Conclusions: The high prevalence of physical inactivity among Iranian adult population suggests the urgent need to adopt population-wide action plans and policies to handle this major public health problem and avert the probable burden.

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Nicholas Scicluna, Mark Hamer, and Joanna M. Blodgett

Background: Adolescence is a critical period filled with life changes. Early implementation of effective health promotion strategies could help alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with inactivity. This study investigated whether adolescent participation in exercise and sport is associated with device-assessed physical activity (PA) levels in midlife. Methods: A total of 2984 participants (41.2% male) from the 1970 British Cohort Study were included. Participants were surveyed at age 16 years on 5 indicators of exercise and sport participation. Total daily PA and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at age 46 years were measured using a thigh-worn accelerometer, worn for 7 days. Associations between each adolescent exercise or sport indicator and adulthood total daily PA and MVPA were examined using linear regressions, adjusting for sex, wear time, body mass index, smoking, disability, malaise, alcohol consumption, social class, education, and self-rated health. Results: In fully adjusted models, adolescents who reported exercising “much more” than others (8.6 min/d; 95% confidence interval, −0.1 to 17.1), who played sports at the park/playground more than once a week (8.5 [3.0–14.0] min/d), and who exercised on the most recent Saturday (3.8 [0.7–6.9] min/d) had higher adult total PA levels than those who reported the lowest activity levels. There was no evidence of an association between greater sport and exercise participation at age 16 y and MVPA at age 46 y. There was no association between sports at school and either measure of adult PA. Conclusion: Active adolescents, particularly those who engaged in out-of-school exercise, had higher total daily PA levels, but not MVPA levels, in midlife. This highlights the potential of early PA interventions to improve PA levels in adulthood.

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Mengyi Wei and Kim C. Graber

This scoping review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of physical education (PE) literature related to bullying. The review was outlined and guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. All English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals that focused on bullying and PE were included. Thematic analysis was used to summarize data extracted from the selected literature. In total, 43 articles conducted in 16 countries were included in this scoping review. Results identified individual-, peer-, school-, and family-level factors that trigger bullying in PE. The impacts of bullying in PE, antibullying strategies and interventions, and summary of future study directions are also discussed. Results from the study highlighted the importance of adopting social ecological perspectives to address bullying behavior and guide antibullying interventions in PE. Physical activities that can potentially promote children’s social emotional learning are also needed to reduce and prevent bullying in PE.

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André O. Werneck, Raphael H.O. Araujo, Cecilia Anza-Ramírez, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Christian García-Witulski, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Se-Sergio Baldew, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Antonio García-Hermoso, Gerson Ferrari, Felicia Cañete, Ramfis Nieto-Martinez, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: To estimate the prevalence of different physical activity (PA) domains and sitting time (ST), and to analyze the association with sociodemographic indicators. Methods: Data from the most recent nationally representative survey from each of the South American countries, comprising 155,790 adults (18–64 y), were used. Data on leisure-time, transport, and occupational PA (all 3 domains as nonzero), total PA (≥150 min/wk), and ST (≥8 h/d) were assessed by specific questionnaires in each survey. Gender, age group (18–34, 35–49, and 50–64 y), and education (quintiles) were used as sociodemographic factors. Random effect meta-analysis of the association between sociodemographic factors and PA and ST were conducted. Results: The prevalence of PA guidelines compliance and elevated ST in South America was 70.3% and 14.1%, respectively. Women were less likely to achieve the recommended levels of total and domain-based PA. Participants in the highest quintile of education were more likely for elevated ST (2.80, 2.08–3.77), lower occupational PA (0.65, 0.44–0.95), but higher leisure-time PA (3.13, 2.31–4.27), in comparison with lowest quintile. Older adults were less likely to participate in total and leisure-time PA. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the urge to tackle the inequalities in PA practice in South America, especially gender and education inequalities, for leisure-time PA.

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Shelby Carr, Andrew J. Atkin, Andy P. Jones, Richard Pulsford, and Karen Milton

Background: Evidence on the prevalence, determinants, and health outcomes of physical activity in disabled people is limited. It is possible that the limited availability of high-quality scientific evidence is due to the extent and nature of disability assessment in physical activity research. This scoping review explores how disability has been measured in epidemiological studies that included accelerometer-based measurement of physical activity. Methods: Data sources: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, PsychINFO, Health Management Information Consortium, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. Eligibility criteria: Prospective and cross-sectional studies that included an accelerometer measurement of physical activity. Survey instruments used in these studies were obtained, and questions relating to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains of (1) health conditions, (2) body functions and structures, and (3) activities and participation, were extracted for analysis. Results: Eighty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, from which complete information on the 3 domains was obtained for 68. Seventy-five percent of studies (n = 51) captured whether a person had at least one health condition, 63% (n = 43) had questions related to body functions and structures, and 75% (n = 51) included questions related to activities and participation. Conclusion: While most studies asked something about one of the 3 domains, there was substantial diversity in the focus and style of questions. This diversity indicates a lack of consensus on how these concepts should be assessed, with implications for the comparability of evidence across studies and subsequent understanding of the relationships between disability, physical activity, and health.

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João Martins, Marcos Onofre, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Christine Bernstein and Michael Behringer

This scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of biological mechanisms underlying the menstrual cycle’s impact on various performance-determining anatomical and physiological parameters. It is intended to identify the various proposed vital concepts and theories that may explain performance changes following hormonal fluctuations. The review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews protocol. A framework of six groups was built such as skeletal muscle physiology, muscle damage, tendons and ligaments, neuromuscular control, cardiovascular system, and exercise metabolism to cluster studies thematically and to specify the concept of “performance.” Original research studies published between 1970 and 2021 that were conducted with a naturally menstruating population were considered. Changes in performance regarding the menstrual cycle phase were crucial for inclusion. Topic-specific reviews and systematic reviews were included if they addressed the impact of female steroid hormones on any structure or part of the human body. The review indicates that the impact of estrogen and progesterone is primarily responsible for observed changes in athletic performance during the menstrual cycle. Estrogen seems capable of fostering protein synthesis, diminishing collagen metabolism, preventing muscle damage due to its antioxidant effects, and restraining inhibitory, while promoting excitatory, control by interacting with neurotransmitters. Progesterone is assumed to increase thermoregulation and enhance ventilatory drive by interacting with hypothalamic pathways and may further amplify inhibitory control by interacting with neurotransmitters. The female steroid hormones and the endocrinologic system collaborate in complex interrelationships with biological systems to maintain homeostasis. However, proposed mechanisms are often derived from animal studies and studies conducted in vitro and still remain to be proven true in the human regularly menstruating population. In the future, it is crucial to rely on studies that followed the methodology for cycle monitoring recommendations thoroughly. Otherwise, it is not possible to determine whether hormonal fluctuations cause observed changes in performance or not.