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Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Free access

Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that higher education in the United States is experiencing somewhat of a paradigm shift. We are being challenged to reform our institutions in order to respond to changing societal needs resulting from the fast-paced, digital transformation of industries, societal systems, and our daily lives. The member institutions of the American Academy of Kinesiology will need to think long and hard about how they will respond to these challenges. America’s universities have a responsibility to be a catalyst for the human-centric, technology-driven transformation of sectors such as transportation, agriculture, medicine, public health, clean energy, and manufacturing, among others, and to provide the vision, leadership, and innovation that such workforce transformation demands. Within the academy, we rightly take great pride in our long-standing contributions to the development and deployment of breakthrough discoveries and innovations that have contributed to the transformation of society. However, we have begun to realize that our institutions will need to bring this same commitment to innovation to our teaching, curricula, and instructional programs. Addressing these new areas of need and opportunity will require institutional innovation and reform, for us and for the postsecondary education sector generally. I believe that American Kinesiology Association member departments can play a significant role in the transformation of higher education at our institutions. I am delighted that the American Kinesiology Association has begun to think through how these changes will impact the future of our discipline. I am both optimistic and excited about the many ways that American Kinesiology Association member institutions will continue to play a leading role in the new higher education reality.

Free access

Ding Ding, Pedro C. Hallal, Loretta DiPietro, and Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

Free access

Leonardo Alex Volpato, Julio Cesar Costa, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Catiana Leila Possamai Romanzini, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini

Background: Recent statistical approaches have allowed consideration of the integrated relationships between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) with different health outcomes. The present paper aimed to systematically review the literature and synthesize evidence about associations between hypothetical reallocations from SB to different PA intensities and cardiovascular risk factors in youth. Methods: A systematic search of 8 databases was performed. Observational studies with a population of children and/or adolescents and based on statistical analysis that investigated the associations between time reallocations from SB to PA and cardiovascular risk factors were included. Results: Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Level of evidence (derived from cross-sectional studies) indicated that the reallocation from SB to moderate to vigorous PA was beneficially associated with adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in youth. Reallocation from SB to light PA was not associated with the analyzed outcomes. Associations derived from longitudinal studies were mostly inconclusive. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors could be improved by increasing moderate to vigorous PA at the expense of time spent in SB in pediatric populations. Prospective studies or studies investigating the effects of reallocating sedentary bouts to PA are needed.

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J.D. DeFreese, Daniel J. Madigan, and Henrik Gustafsson

Open access

Kerstin Hagberg, Roland Zügner, Peter Thomsen, and Roy Tranberg

Introduction: Mobility restriction following limb loss might lead to a sedentary lifestyle, impacting health. Daily activity monitoring of amputees has focused on prosthetic steps, neglecting overall activity. Purpose: To assess daily activity in individuals with an established amputation and to explore the amount of activity recorded from the prosthesis as compared to the overall activity. Methods: Individuals with a unilateral transfemoral amputation or knee disarticulation who had used a prosthesis in daily life for >1 year and could walk 100 m (unsupported or single aided) were recruited. Descriptive information and prosthetic mobility were collected. Two activPAL™ accelerometers were attached to the nonamputated thigh and the prosthesis, respectively. The mean daily activity over 7 days was compared between the nonamputated limb and the prosthesis. Results: Thirty-nine participants (22 men/17 women; mean age 54 [14.5] years) with amputation mainly due to trauma (59%) or tumor (28%) were included. Overall, participants took 6,125 steps and spent 10.2 hr sedentary, 5.0 hr upright, and 8.7 hr laying per day. Compared to recordings from the nonamputated limb, 85% of sit-to-stand transitions (32/38), 73% of steps (4,449/6,125), and 68% of walking time (1.0/1.5 hr) were recorded from the prosthesis. Recordings seemed to be less adequate for incidental prosthetic steps than for walks. Conclusions: Sedentary behavior accounted for most of the day demonstrating the importance to encourage physical activity among established prosthetic users. The prosthesis is used for daily activity to a great extent. However, noted pitfalls in the recordings call for further refinement of the measurements.

Free access

Sarah Kozey Keadle, Julian Martinez, Scott J. Strath, John Sirard, Dinesh John, Stephen Intille, Diego Arguello, Marcos Amalbert-Birriel, Rachel Barnett, Binod Thapa-Chhetry, Melanna Cox, John Chase, Erin Dooley, Rob Marcotte, Alexander Tolas, and John W. Staudemayer

Direct observation (DO) is a widely accepted ground-truth measure, but the field lacks standard operational definitions. Research groups develop project-specific annotation platforms, limiting the utility of DO if labels are not consistent. Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate within- and between-site agreement for DO taxonomies (e.g., activity intensity category) across four independent research groups who have used video-recorded DO. Methods : Each site contributed video files (508 min) and had two trained research assistants annotate the shared video files according to their existing annotation protocols. The authors calculated (a) within-site agreement for the two coders at the same site expressed as intraclass correlation and (b) between-site agreement, the proportion of seconds that agree between any two coders regardless of site. Results: Within-site agreement at all sites was good–excellent for both activity intensity categories (intraclass correlation range: .82–.9) and posture/whole-body movement (intraclass correlation range: .77–.98). Between-site agreement for intensity categories was 94.6% for sedentary, 80.9% for light, and 82.8% for moderate–vigorous. Three of the four sites had common labels for eight posture/whole-body movements and had within-site agreements of 94.5% and between-site agreements of 86.1%. Conclusions: Distinct research groups can annotate key features of physical behavior with good-to-excellent interrater reliability. Operational definitions are provided for core metrics for researchers to consider in future studies to facilitate between-study comparisons and data pooling, enabling the deployment of deep learning approaches to wearable device algorithm calibration.

Free access

Haylie L. Miller

Social media offers an exciting opportunity for the field of motor development and behavior research. With platforms such as Twitter offering access to historical data from users’ public bios and posts, there is untapped potential to examine community perspectives on the role of motor differences in identity and lived experience. Analysis of online discourse offers advantages over traditional qualitative methods like structured interviews or focus groups, including a less-contrived setting, global geographic and cultural representation, and ease of sampling. The aim of this special section is to present a pipeline for harvesting and analysis of Twitter data related to users’ identities and discourse characteristics, specifically situated in the context of motor development and behavior. This pipeline is demonstrated in two independent studies, one on autistic users and one on developmental coordination disorder (DCD)/dyspraxic users. These studies demonstrate the utility of Twitter data for research on neurodivergent and disabled people’s perspectives on their motor differences, and whether they are expressed as part of their identity. Implications of results are discussed for each study, as well as in the larger context of future research using a variety of approaches to analysis of social media data, including those from predominantly image- and video-based platforms.