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Process Evaluation of a Scaled-Up School-Based Physical Activity Program for Adolescents: Physical Activity 4 Everyone

Matthew Mclaughlin, Jed Duff, Elizabeth Campbell, Tom McKenzie, Lynda Davies, Luke Wolfenden, John Wiggers, and Rachel Sutherland

Background: Physical Activity 4 Everyone (PA4E1) is a whole-school physical activity program, with demonstrated efficacy (2012–2014). PA4E1 was adapted (scaled-up) and tested in a scale-up trial (2017–2020). This process evaluation study of the scale-up trial had 2 aims. First, to describe the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of PA4E1 in the scale-up trial, from the perspective of school staff involved in the program management and delivery. Second, to generate themes that may explain school staff assessments of acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility. Methods: Data were collected at various time points throughout the 2-year implementation phase. Online surveys were collected from In-School Champions, Head Physical Education teachers, Principals, and Physical Education teachers (quantitative data). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with In-School Champions, Principals, and Physical Education teachers (qualitative data). Existing published data on website engagement, adaptations, modifications, and the scale-up trial primary outcome (implementation of physical activity practices) were triangulated with the quantitative and qualitative during analysis, to generate themes. Results: School staff delivering PA4E1 reported it was highly acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. Seven themes were generated relating to acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility. The themes related to how the program was funded, the delivery modes of implementation support, the identification of easy-wins, the recruitment of the right in-school champion, facilitating principal buy-in, mitigating the impact of school staff turnover, and engaging the whole school. Conclusions: Recommendations are made to inform future adaptations for PA4E1 and potentially school-based physical activity programs more generally. The findings may inform future scalability assessments of the suitability of programs for scale-up.

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Active Learning Through Video Conferencing to Maintain Physical Activity Among Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Kazuki Uemura, Tsukasa Kamitani, Atsuya Watanabe, Hiroshi Okamoto, Kenshi Saho, and Minoru Yamada

This randomized pilot trial investigated the feasibility of an active learning physical activity intervention through video conferencing and its preliminary effects. Participants comprised community-dwelling older adults who could use e-mail. The intervention group underwent a 12-week active learning intervention via video conferencing to promote a healthy lifestyle, particularly physical activity. The control group received information via e-mail once per week. The amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior was measured using an accelerometer at baseline, postintervention, and 24-week postintervention (36 weeks). Of the 31 participants, 29 were eligible and randomized into two groups (15 for the intervention and 14 for the control). Adherence to the intervention was 83%–100% (mean, 97%). Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed moderate maintenance effects on total physical activity and sedentary behavior at 36 weeks. Active learning physical activity intervention through video conferencing was found to be feasible and contributed to the prevention of physical activity decline in older adults.

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Synchronous Group-Based Online Exercise Programs for Older Adults Living in the Community: A Scoping Review

Maria Fernanda Fuentes Diaz, Brianna Leadbetter, Vanessa Pitre, Sarah Nowell, Martin Sénéchal, and Danielle R. Bouchard

Older adults are the least physically active group with specific barriers to regular exercise, and online exercise programs could overcome some of those barriers. This scoping review aimed to describe the characteristics of supervised group-based synchronous online exercise programs for older adults living in the community, their feasibility, acceptability, and potential benefits. MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, SPORTDiscus, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched until November 2022. The included studies met the following criteria: participants aged 50 years and above, a minimum of a 6-week group-based supervised and synchronous intervention, and original articles available in English. Eighteen articles were included, with 1,178 participants (67% female, average age of 71 [57–93] years), most (83%) published in the past 3 years. From the limited reported studies, delivering supervised, synchronous online exercise programs (one to three times/week, between 8 and 32 weeks) for older adults living in the community seems feasible, accepted, and can improve physical function.

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International Society of Research and Advocacy for Developmental Coordination Disorder (ISRA-DCD)—15th Biannual Conference and International Motor Development Research Consortium (I-MDRC)—6th Assembly

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Mindfulness and Psychological Inflexibility in Portuguese Adolescent Athletes: A Novel Framework for Understanding the Link Between Shame and Sports Anxiety

Sara Margarida Simões de Oliveira, Marina Isabel Vieira Antunes Cunha, António Fernando Boleto Rosado, Mariana Saraiva, and Cláudia Rute Carlos Ferreira

This study aimed to test a comprehensive model in adolescent athletes that explores the effect of shame on sports anxiety and whether psychological inflexibility and mindfulness influence this association. The sample study included 210 young Portuguese athletes from different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 49% of the variance in sports anxiety. Results demonstrated that athletes who experienced higher levels of shame tended to exhibit elevated levels of sports anxiety through lower levels of mindfulness and higher psychological inflexibility. The study offers new empirical data that may be relevant for clinical and sport psychology practitioners. These findings seem to underline the importance of addressing shame and, consequently, sports anxiety in adolescent athletes by developing greater psychological flexibility and, inherently, more mindfulness skills among adolescent athletes who are in a phase of their lives where sport can play a crucial role.

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Playing in Front of the Bench: Courtside Selection and Its Impact on Team Performance

Finn Spilker and Christian Deutscher

This paper analyzes the strategic decision of basket choice in the National Basketball Association. Before games start, the away team chooses whether to play on offense in front of their bench in the first or second half. Based on eight regular seasons and 9,308 games, we identify the standard strategy for away teams to play on offense at their own benches in the first half. Results indicate that both home and away teams score more points when they play on offense in front of their bench. More importantly, there is a strategic advantage for the away team to play with the offense in front of the bench in the second half, deviating from the standard strategy in the league. Finally, we demonstrate that the choice of the basket for the away team can partially offset the home advantage under normal spectator conditions and entirely nullify it in ghost games.

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Erratum. Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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The Intrinsic Properties of ActiGraph Counts and Alternatives

Jan Christian Brønd, Niels Christian Møller, and Anders Grøntved

There are currently several methods available to generate summary measures from acceleration, while ActiGraph (AG) counts as the first method to be used at large scale. The recent disclosure of the AG counts method exposes its intrinsic properties, which has not been accessible before. The intrinsic properties are the raw acceleration processing elements like filtering, rectification, or dead-band elimination, which are used to estimate physical activity intensity. The aim of this technical note is to compare the intrinsic properties of AG counts method with five alternatives (Euclidean Norm Minus One, mean average deviation, Activity Index, Rate of Change Accelerometry Movement, and Monitor-Independent Movement Summary) and how rescaling of AG counts and Monitor-Independent Movement Summary/minute into the International System of Units can be used to harmonize all summary measures and facilitate direct comparison. A total of 12 intrinsic properties are compared, and the overview demonstrates that there is large diversity regarding the specific intrinsic property elements being included, and with Monitor-Independent Movement Summary to be the only summary measure, which has been developed considering all elements. The harmonized output generated from all summary methods is highly comparable within common activities, but to obtain a robust summary measure recorded in subjects during free-living conditions, more research is warranted to evaluate the effect of the different intrinsic properties.

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Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Sarah T. Ryan, Anthony D. Okely, Kar Hau Chong, Rebecca M. Stanley, Melanie Randle, Gade Waqa, Ashley B. Yamanaka, Rachael Leon Guerrero, Patricia Coleman, Leslie Shallcross, Lynne R. Wilkens, Jonathan L. Deenik, and Rachel Novotny

Introduction: Limited data on 24-hour movement behaviors of children aged 5–8 years exist globally. We describe the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of meeting physical activity (PA), sedentary recreational screen time (ST), and sleep guidelines among children from 11 jurisdictions in the US-Affiliated Pacific region. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from 1192 children aged 5–8 years living in the US-Affiliated Pacific region were drawn from the baseline 2012–2014 Children’s Healthy Living Program. Sleep and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA were calculated from accelerometry. ST and sociodemographic data were collected from caregiver surveys. The percentage of children meeting the Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines for PA (≥60 min/d of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA), sleep (≥9 and ≤ 11 h/d) and ST (≤2 h/d) were calculated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine associations with adiposity and sociodemographic variables. Results: Twenty-seven percent (95% confidence interval, 24.6–30.0) of children met integrated guidelines; 98% (96.2–98.0) met PA, 78% (75.4–80.0) met sleep, and 35% (32.6–38.0) met ST guidelines. Females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.91]) and those living in lower-middle-income jurisdictions (2.29 [1.49–3.54]) were more likely to meet ST guidelines. Overweight children (0.62 [0.40–0.96]), those aged 8 years (0.39 [0.22–0.69]), and children with caregivers of an education level of high school or beyond (0.44 [0.29–0.68]) were less likely to achieve ST guidelines. Children from midrange annual household incomes were less likely to meet combined guidelines (0.60 [0.39–0.92]). Conclusions: Three-quarters of children are not meeting integrated Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines. Future strategies for reducing ST and increasing integrated guidelines compliance are needed.

Open access

“Now I Am Walking Toward Health”: A Qualitative Study About the Outcomes of Physical Activity Participation That Matter to Older Adults

Peter J. Young, Christine Wallsworth, Hitika Gosal, and Dawn C. Mackey

Background/Objectives: Randomized controlled trials that deliver physical activity interventions have demonstrated benefits for older adults across numerous health outcomes. However, too little attention has been directed to ensuring that such trials are measuring patient-relevant outcomes. To support outcome selection for future trials, the objective of this study was to understand what outcomes related to their physical activity participation older adults find important. Methods: We conducted 12 semistructured interviews with adults aged 65 years and older and analyzed interview transcripts with a reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Older adults desired diverse outcomes from their physical activity participation, ranging from generic (e.g., quality of life) to specific (e.g., leg strength). Relevant outcomes were classified under five themes: physical, clinical, social, psychological, and overarching, each with respective subthemes. Conclusions: The outcomes that older adults found important were plentiful and rooted in a desire to improve their quality of life. Some of the outcome themes have been reported frequently in past trials (e.g., physical), but others have not (e.g., social). Future researchers should be aware of, and responsive to, the priorities of older adults when designing trials and defining outcomes. Significance/Implications: This study will help to improve outcome selection for future trials of physical activity with older adults. In alignment with a patient-oriented research philosophy, this study will also ground future outcome selection in the priorities of older adults.