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Tanya Tripathi, Stacey C. Dusing, Peter E. Pidcoe, Yaoying Xu, Mary S. Shall and Daniel L. Riddle

Aims: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends “parents to incorporate supervised, awake ‘prone play’ in their infant’s routine to support motor development and minimize the risk of plagiocephaly”. The purpose of this feasibility study was to compare usual care to a reward contingency–based intervention, developed to increase prone tolerance and improve motor skills. Methods: Ten full-term infants, 3–6- months old, with poor prone tolerance were randomized to either the Education group or Reward contingency group. Each group participated in three parent education sessions and 15 intervention sessions, over the period of three weeks. Infants in the Reward contingency group used the Prone Play Activity Center, a technology developed to reinforce motor behavior of infants in prone position. Intervention frequency and parent feedback data determined the feasibility of the interventions. Results: Infants in the Reward contingency group practiced a median of 12 of the 15 anticipated intervention sessions in the Prone Play Activity Center. These infants used the device for a mean of 18 minutes per day. Parents of infants in the Education group practiced a median of 10 sessions of the 15 anticipated intervention sessions. Conclusion: The reward contingency–based intervention is feasible for use in a future clinical trial with some modifications.

Open access

Fahim A. Salim, Fasih Haider, Dees Postma, Robby van Delden, Dennis Reidsma, Saturnino Luz and Bert-Jan van Beijnum

Automatic tagging of video recordings of sports matches and training sessions can be helpful to coaches and players and provide access to structured data at a scale that would be unfeasible if one were to rely on manual tagging. Recognition of different actions forms an essential part of sports video tagging. In this paper, the authors employ machine learning techniques to automatically recognize specific types of volleyball actions (i.e., underhand serve, overhead pass, serve, forearm pass, one hand pass, smash, and block which are manually annotated) during matches and training sessions (uncontrolled, in the wild data) based on motion data captured by inertial measurement unit sensors strapped on the wrists of eight female volleyball players. Analysis of the results suggests that all sensors in the inertial measurement unit (i.e., magnetometer, accelerometer, barometer, and gyroscope) contribute unique information in the classification of volleyball actions types. The authors demonstrate that while the accelerometer feature set provides better results than other sensors, overall (i.e., gyroscope, magnetometer, and barometer) feature fusion of the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope provides the bests results (unweighted average recall = 67.87%, unweighted average precision = 68.68%, and κ = .727), well above the chance level of 14.28%. Interestingly, it is also demonstrated that the dominant hand (unweighted average recall = 61.45%, unweighted average precision = 65.41%, and κ = .652) provides better results than the nondominant (unweighted average recall = 45.56%, unweighted average precision = 55.45, and κ = .553) hand. Apart from machine learning models, this paper also discusses a modular architecture for a system to automatically supplement video recording by detecting events of interests in volleyball matches and training sessions and to provide tailored and interactive multimodal feedback by utilizing an HTML5/JavaScript application. A proof of concept prototype developed based on this architecture is also described.

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Sophia Nimphius and Matthew J. Jordan

Open access

Svend Erik Mathiassen

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Sandy J. Slater, Anmol Sanghera, Yadira Herrera and Jamie F. Chriqui

Background: Head Start serves over 1 million diverse low-income preschool children and is an ideal setting for developing and implementing obesity prevention efforts, which is expected to have positive impacts on behavior as youth age. This study examined how regional- and state-level Head Start offices have supported implementation of the recently updated physical activity (PA) requirement within the teaching and learning environment Head Start Program Performance Standard (1302.31). Methods: Key informant telephone interviews were conducted with 8 regional- and 36 state-level Head Start representatives. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Data were coded and analyzed using constant comparative methods in ATLAS.ti (version 8). Audit trails were maintained, and disagreements in codes were discussed and resolved among coders. Results: The following 3 overarching themes emerged: communication, resources and technical assistance, and challenges. Results showed variation in respondent knowledge regarding the Standards. Although regional contacts provide technical assistance, state-level contacts have many information sharing strategies for programs. Implementation challenges included the need for frequent professional development opportunities given staff turnover and low PA competency, and additional PA curricula. Conclusion: Findings can help identify existing or potential strategies that could be adopted more widely or developed to assist Head Start programs incorporate PA into daily activities.

Open access

Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Kiminori Kato, Susumu S. Sawada, Haruki Momma, Motohiko Miyachi, I-Min Lee, Steven N. Blair, Minoru Tashiro, Chika Horikawa, Yasuhiro Matsubayashi, Takaho Yamada, Kazuya Fujihara and Hirohito Sone

Background: To examine the association between muscular and performance fitness (MPF) and the incidence of glaucoma. Methods: A total of 27,051 glaucoma-free participants aged 20–87 years underwent physical fitness tests between April 2001 and March 2002. The MPF index was calculated using an age- and sex-specific summed z-score from grip strength, vertical jump, single-leg balance, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time. The participants were divided into quartiles according to the MPF index and each physical fitness test. Participants were followed up for the development of glaucoma, which was defined based on physician-diagnosed glaucoma at an annual health examination between April 2002 and March 2008. Hazard ratios for the incidence of glaucoma were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During follow-up, 303 participants developed glaucoma. Compared with the lowest MPF index group, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing glaucoma was 0.64 (0.46–0.89) for the highest MPF index group (P for trend = .001). Vertical jump and whole-body reaction time were associated with incident glaucoma (P for trend = .01 and <.001, respectively). There were no associations between the other physical fitness tests and the incidence of glaucoma. Conclusion: Higher MPF is associated with lower incidence of glaucoma.

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Liana M. Tennant, Erika Nelson-Wong, Joshua Kuest, Gabriel Lawrence, Kristen Levesque, David Owens, Jeremy Prisby, Sarah Spivey, Stephanie R. Albin, Kristen Jagger, Jeff M. Barrett, James D. Wong and Jack P. Callaghan

Spinal stiffness and mobility assessments vary between clinical and research settings, potentially hindering the understanding and treatment of low back pain. A total of 71 healthy participants were evaluated using 2 clinical assessments (posteroanterior spring and passive intervertebral motion) and 2 quantitative measures: lumped mechanical stiffness of the lumbar spine and local tissue stiffness (lumbar erector spinae and supraspinous ligament) measured via myotonometry. The authors hypothesized that clinical, mechanical, and local tissue measures would be correlated, that clinical tests would not alter mechanical stiffness, and that males would demonstrate greater lumbar stiffness than females. Clinical, lumped mechanical, and tissue stiffness were not correlated; however, gradings from the posteroanterior spring and passive intervertebral motion tests were positively correlated with each other. Clinical assessments had no effect on lumped mechanical stiffness. The males had greater lumped mechanical and lumbar erector spinae stiffness compared with the females. The lack of correlation between clinical, tissue, and lumped mechanical measures of spinal stiffness indicates that the use of the term “stiffness” by clinicians may require reevaluation; clinicians should be confident that they are not altering mechanical stiffness of the spine through segmental mobility assessments; and greater resting lumbar erector stiffness in males suggests that sex should be considered in the assessment and treatment of the low back.

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Justin B. Hollander, Ann Sussman, Peter Lowitt, Neil Angus and Minyu Situ

Background: Understanding more about the unseen side of our responses to visual stimuli offers a powerful new tool for transportation planning. Traditional transportation planning tends to focus on the mobility of vehicles rather than on opportunities to encourage sustainable transport modes, like walking. Methods: Using eye-tracking emulation software, this study measured the unconscious visual responses people have to designs and layouts in new built environments, focusing on what makes streets most walkable. Results: The study found key differences between the way the brain takes in conventional automobile-oriented residential developments versus new urbanist layouts, with the former lacking key fixation points. Conclusion: The study’s discoveries significantly explain why new urbanist layouts promote walking effortlessly and conventional automobile-oriented residential developments cannot.