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Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke

This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a moderate CHO control diet (CON = 6 g/kg body mass CHO daily) for a 2-week training period. The athletes completed a 26-km race walking test protocol before and after the dietary intervention. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise and measured for serum ferritin, interleukin-6, and hepcidin-25 concentrations. Similar decreases in serum ferritin (17–23%) occurred postintervention in MAX and CON. At the baseline, CON had a greater postexercise increase in interleukin-6 levels after 26 km of walking (20.1-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 35.7]) compared with MAX (10.2-fold, 95% CI [3.7, 18.7]). A similar finding was evident for hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise (CON = 10.8-fold, 95% CI [4.8, 21.2]; MAX = 8.8-fold, 95% CI [3.9, 16.4]). Postintervention, there were no substantial differences in the interleukin-6 response (CON = 13.6-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 20.5]; MAX = 11.2-fold, 95% CI [6.5, 21.3]) or hepcidin levels (CON = 7.1-fold, 95% CI [2.1, 15.4]; MAX = 6.3-fold, 95% CI [1.8, 14.6]) between the dietary groups. Higher resting serum ferritin (p = .004) and hotter trial ambient temperatures (p = .014) were associated with greater hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise. Very high CHO diets employed by endurance athletes to increase CHO oxidation have little impact on iron regulation in elite athletes. It appears that variations in serum ferritin concentration and ambient temperature, rather than dietary CHO, are associated with increased hepcidin concentrations 3 hr postexercise.

Open access
Open access

James A. Betts

Open access

Kihan Kim, Hojun Sung, Yeayoung Noh, and Kimoon Lee

This study investigated the determinants of television viewership and its relation to broadcasters’ choices of matches for live telecasts. Also, factors driving the broadcasters’ choices were examined. A panel data set from the 2018 Korea Baseball Organization league pennant race was analyzed. Broadcasters’ choice order of matches and the actual television ratings of each match were regressed on a series of antecedent factors related to the game characteristics and audience preferences. It was found that the broadcasters’ choice order of matches positively affected the television ratings, suggesting that the broadcasters’ decisions were well reflected in the actual viewership. It also appeared that broadcasters’ choices were based on popularity and team performance/quality, whereas viewers showed preference for current games’ on-field performance. There was no evidence of audience preference for games with higher outcome uncertainty, whereas the broadcasters tended to choose games with more certain, rather than uncertain, outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

Open access

Mandeep Kaur, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Kate E. Webster, and Gisela Sole

Context: Altered knee joint mechanics may be related to quadriceps muscle strength, time since surgery, and sex following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between knee moments, with participant-related factors during stair navigation post-ACLR. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 30 participants (14 women) with ACLR, on average 7.0 (SD 4.4) years postsurgery were tested during stair ascent and descent in a gait laboratory. Motion capture was conducted using a floor-embedded force plate and 11 infrared cameras. Quadriceps concentric and eccentric muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s, and peak torques recorded. Multiple regression analyses were performed between external knee flexion and adduction moments, respectively, and quadriceps peak torque, sex, and time since ACLR. Results: Higher concentric quadriceps strength and female sex accounted for 55.7% of the total variance for peak knee flexion moment during stair ascent (P < .001). None of the independent variables accounted for variance in knee adduction moment (P = .698). No significant associations were found for knee flexion and adduction moments during for stair descent. Conclusion: Higher quadriceps concentric strength and sex explains major variance in knee flexion moments during stair ascent. The strong association between muscle strength and external knee flexion moments during stair ascent indicate rehabilitation tailored for quadriceps may optimize knee mechanics, particularly for women.

Open access
Open access

Rodrigo Reis, Ruth F. Hunter, Leandro Garcia, and Deborah Salvo

We are experiencing a planetary tipping point with global warming, environmental degradation, and losses in biodiversity. The burdens of these changes fall disproportionately on poor and marginalized populations. Physical activity promotion strategies need to be aligned with climate action commitments, incorporating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios in physical activity action plans. The promotion strategies must consider equity a core value and promote physical activity to the most vulnerable populations so that they are protected from the ill-health impacts of a changing climate.

Open access