Lori A. Gano-Overway
This article is a critical celebration of Title IX. Fifty years of this landmark civil rights legislation has brought tremendous progress for girls and women in all areas of the U.S. educational system—including sport. However, Title IX has yet to achieve its full potential. For this to happen, I propose nine pressing issues that must be addressed: enforcing compliance; roster management and other dubious compliance tactics; more opportunities for women of color; the leadership gap; sex-segregated sport; the inclusion of transgender athletes; name, image, and likeness opportunities; the athletic arms race; and sexual harassment and violence. Based on current, scholarship, published data, and contemporary examples, this “nine for IX” approach is not a critique of the law but rather a critique of those aspects of American interscholastic and intercollegiate sport that continually hamstring Title IX’s power.
Ellen J. Staurowsky, Courtney L. Flowers, Erin Buzuvis, Lindsay Darvin, and Natalie Welch
In 2022, the Women’s Sports Foundation published a report addressing the current status of Title IX compliance in U.S school-based sports, examining the limitations of Title IX as a single axis law that addresses gender but not other areas of intersectionality including race, gender identity, sexual orientation, and ability. What is presented here is the executive summary and policy recommendations from the report.
Akilah R. Carter-Francique, Yeomi Choi, DeAnne Davis Brooks, Katherine M. Jamieson, and Judy Liao
This essay gives a personal viewpoint of the environment for girls’ and women’s sport in the years surrounding the origination of Title IX and the organizational impacts unleashed by this legislation. Particular attention is given to the, somewhat surprising, degree to which men in power positions in sport benefitted from Title IX’s uneven pattern of enactment. A cautionary note suggests that advocates in future work take careful steps so that language and protocols of potential legislation assure benefits to the intended beneficiaries rather than others. A concluding assessment asserts that one of the strongest positives of Title IX is a shift in stance of female athletes from being “grateful for banquet leftovers” to an expectation of equity in treatment and benefits.
Amina Haggar and Audrey R. Giles
Guided by the experiences and perspectives of sport practitioners, in this paper, an intersectional lens was used to examine age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and religion and how they relate to the recruitment and participation of second-generation, low-income, African Canadian, Black Muslim, and Christian adolescent girls in a community-based basketball program in Ottawa, Canada. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 program coordinators and coaches involved in the City of Ottawa Community Centre Basketball League (CCBL), and reflexive thematic analysis of the data was engaged. The findings were threefold: (a) CCBL coordinators and coaches recognize the importance of representation to enhancing their support to program users; (b) CCBL coaches and coordinators make efforts to build trust with and increase buy-in from first-generation immigrant parents to improve girls’ program participation; and (c) CCBL coaches and coordinators make religious accommodations in response to the needs of Muslim and Christian program users. The findings illustrated that community-based sport programs serving second-generation African Canadian adolescent girls in low-income communities require multifaceted program and outreach strategies that consider the intersecting social experiences of participants to improve recruitment and participation. To conclude, policy and program design and implementation strategies to support the creation of inclusive, equity-driven community-based sport practices were proposed.
Gashaw Abeza and Jimmy Sanderson
A key feature of a robust academic discipline is that its homegrown theories and investing in theory contribute to building good research. In the field of sport and social media research, the rigorous utilization of theory is one of the areas where the field is still facing “disciplinary pain.” In fact, the unique features of social media provide researchers in the sport research community with a valuable opportunity for proposing, testing, applying, critiquing, comparing, integrating, and expanding theories. In this commentary, the authors, based on their own experience (as researchers, readers, and reviewers of social media in sport), contend that reference resources are lacking on this topic to help young (or existing) researchers locate appropriate theories for their research. Hence, this work identifies, documents, and discusses the theories used, advanced, and developed in social media research for sport studies. Furthermore, a compilation is brought together of different theories from various disciplines that researchers in this community may consider for their future work.
Pamela D. Swan, Carol Ewing Garber, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Monica J. Hubal, Lynda Ransdell, Melinda Millard-Stafford, and Lynn B. Panton
Prior to 1950, the field of exercise science was in its infancy. Exercise physiologists focused their research on understanding basic mechanisms of how the body responds to exercise and how to increase fitness. Most researchers and almost all research participants were male. Over the next two decades, and coinciding with the passage of Title IX, a few remarkable female exercise scientists emerged whose research and leadership had a profound effect on the field and directly influenced girls’ and women’s sports participation. This commentary presents an overview of the contributions and impact of several of these groundbreaking female exercise physiologists, Josephine Rathbone, Barbara Drinkwater, Priscilla Clarkson, Christine Wells, and Emily Haymes. We highlight their influence on the development of the field of exercise science and recognize their continued importance to women’s sport at the 50th Anniversary of Title IX.
Charles B. Corbin, Hyeonho Yu, and Diane L. Gill
Physical education programs in the United States emerged in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Over time, physical education became the field of kinesiology with an established disciplinary base with multiple associated professions. Historical context is provided for five different eras. Textbooks, including those authored by National Academy of Kinesiology fellows, played an important role in the evolution of the field, providing direction, context, and content for both the subdisciplines and the professions. Arguments are offered for the value of textbooks as an important form of scholarship (the scholarship of integration), for the value of textbooks in providing visibility and real-world impact for the field of kinesiology, and for the value of associated textbook ancillary materials as teaching resources for faculty in institutions of higher learning.