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Richard P. Troiano

Accelerometer technology and applications have expanded and evolved rapidly over approximately the past two decades. This commentary, which reflects content presented at a keynote presentation at 8th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM 2022), discusses aspects of this evolution from the author’s perspective. The goal is to provide historical context for newer investigators working with device-based measures of physical activity. The presentation includes discussion of the fielding of accelerometer devices in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, selected recommendations from relevant workshops between 2004 and 2010, and the author’s perspective on the current status of accelerometer use in population surveillance and public health. The important role of collaboration is emphasized.

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Chaiane Calonego, Cristine Lima Alberton, Samarita Beraldo Santagnello, Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Cristiane Rios Petrarca, Daniel Umpierre, Elisa Gouvêa Portella, Luana Siqueira Andrade, Rochele Barboza Pinheiro, Maria Laura Brizio Gomes, Mariana Silva Häfele, Gabriela Barreto David, Ronei Silveira Pinto, João Saldanha Henkin, and Stephanie Santana Pinto

Background: To determine the effect of resistance training volume on physical and perceptual outcomes of breast cancer survivors submitted to a combined training program. Design: Randomized single-blinded study. Methods: Nineteen breast cancer survivor women were randomized to a single-set (SS) or a multiple-set (MS) group. Both groups completed an 8-week combined training intervention in which the SS and MS groups performed 1 and 3 sets per resistance exercise, respectively. The following outcomes were assessed preintervention and postintervention: maximal knee extension dynamic strength (1-repetition maximum), quadriceps muscle thickness, peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life. Results: Both interventions increased knee extension 1-repetition maximum (SS: 29.8% [37.5%]; MS: 19.3% [11.8%]), quadriceps muscle thickness (9.4% [4.1%]; 8.9% [5.9%]), and quality of life (4.3% [6.3%]; 7.9% [9.0%]), with no difference between the groups. However, only MS improved cancer-related fatigue (−2.1% [1.7%]) and time to exhaustion (21.3% [14.9%]), whereas peak oxygen uptake remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusions: Cancer-related fatigue and time to exhaustion, improved only in the MS group after the intervention. On the other hand, similar knee extension 1-repetition maximum, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quality of life improvements were observed in breast cancer survivors irrespective of the resistance training volume performed.

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Mai ChinAPaw and Manou Anselma

We strongly believe that diversity, equity, and inclusion in research lead to better science, more innovations and more relevant outcomes that better serve society at large. Historically, scientific research is quite WEIRD, meaning that it is dominated by researchers and study samples from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic countries. Such WEIRD research leads to results that better serve a small, privileged group of WEIRD people, widening health inequalities. Research among a selective group with similar backgrounds and perspectives results in bias and hinders innovation. As a result, we end up missing out on the valuable holistic viewpoint that more inclusive research would gain. In this invited commentary based on the International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM) 2022 keynote presentation by Prof. ChinAPaw, we discuss the importance of diversity, equity, and inclusion in research and introduce our vision for AWESOME science—All-inclusive, Worldwide ranging, Equitable, Sincere, Open-minded, Mindful of our own implicit bias, and Essential—that is more inclusive and relevant for everyone regardless of who they are and where they live. More diversity, equity, and inclusion make our collective dance toward healthy societies more beautiful and impactful!

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Antonio Moreno-Llamas, Jesús García-Mayor, and Ernesto De la Cruz-Sánchez

Background: A low socioeconomic status (SES) presents lower physical activity; however, the relationship between SES and sedentary behavior (SB) remains unclear. We aimed to assess this association of SES with physical activity (PA) and SB. Methods: We employed representative self-reported data of the European Union from the cross-sectional survey Eurobarometer 2017, comprising a final sample of 13,708 citizens (18–64 y old), to assess the association of SES (education, occupation, and economic issues) with PA and sitting time quartiles, and to describe inequalities in vigorous, moderate, and walking activity and sitting time. Results: Multinomial regressions revealed that people from higher SESs were more likely to report higher PA; nonetheless, higher educational attainment and occupations were also associated with higher sitting time but not with lower economic issues. The inequality, shown by Gini coefficients, describes a socioeconomic gradient in vigorous and moderate activity, from higher inequality in lower statuses to lower inequality in higher statuses. The Gini coefficients also indicated higher socioeconomic inequalities in PA than SB. Conclusions: Higher SESs showed paradoxically more PA and SB; however, sitting time presented smaller differences and a more homogeneous distribution across the population.

Open access

Tracy Nau, William Bellew, Billie Giles-Corti, Adrian Bauman, and Ben J. Smith

Background: The development of policies that promote and enable physical activity (PA) is a global health priority. Laws are an important policy instrument that can enable enduring beneficial outcomes for individuals, organizations, and environments through multiple mechanisms. This article presents a systematic process for mapping laws relevant to PA, which can be used to understand the role of laws as a powerful PA policy lever. Methods: Building on methods used in public health law research, we developed a protocol for scientific mapping of laws influencing the built environment for PA in Australia. The MonQcle online legal research platform was used for data coding, analysis, and presentation. Results: We describe the 10 key stages of legal mapping that we applied to examine state and territory laws that influence walking and cycling in Australia. Conclusions: Law is a neglected element of policy research for PA. There is a need for accessible legal data to drive the design, investment, and implementation of legal interventions to improve population PA. Legal mapping is a first step toward evaluation of such laws for PA. This paper provides a practical case study and guidance for the 10 stages in legal mapping of laws that influence the built environment for PA.

Free access

Raymond Jones, Ene M. Enogela, Taylor L. Buchanan, Thomas W. Buford, David E. Vance, and Pariya L. Fazeli

Background: Inflammation is an indicator of oxidative stress that may contribute to cardiovascular diseases in older people living with HIV (OPWH). Physical activity (PA) may reduce these biomarkers in OPWH, but little is known about the association of PA with inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. We sought to examine the inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarker correlates of PA and sedentary behavior in OPWH. Methods: We included 101 OPWH with complete assessments of PA, sedentary behavior, and biomarker data to examine the association between the volume of PA and inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. Results: In this cohort of OPWH (mean age 55.9 y), 68% were male and 83% were African American/Black. Among OPWH, greater volume of PA (ie, walking, moderate, vigorous, and/or total) was associated with lower systolic (P < .05) and diastolic blood pressure (P < .05), pulse pressure (P < .05), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < .05). Greater duration of sitting was associated with greater triglycerides, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < .05). Conclusions: Although adherence to regular PA among OPWH is low and sedentary behavior is high, the associations between biomarkers and PA suggest a greater volume of PA could attenuate the inflammatory and cardiovascular derangements experienced by OPWH.

Open access

Lindsay Nettlefold, Samantha M. Gray, Joanie Sims-Gould, and Heather A. McKay

Free access

Miguel Ángel Galán-Rioja, José María Gonzalez-Ravé, Fernando González-Mohíno, and Stephen Seiler

A well-planned periodized approach endeavors to allow road cyclists to achieve peak performance when their most important competitions are held. Purpose: To identify the main characteristics of periodization models and physiological parameters of trained road cyclists as described by discernable training intensity distribution (TID), volume, and periodization models. Methods: The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using a comprehensive list of relevant terms. Studies that investigated the effect of the periodization of training in cyclists and described training load (volume, TID) and periodization details were included in the systematic review. Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Block periodization (characterized by employment of highly concentrated training workload phases) ranged between 1- and 8-week blocks of high-, medium-, or low-intensity training. Training volume ranged from 8.75 to 11.68 h·wk–1 and both pyramidal and polarized TID were used. Traditional periodization (characterized by a first period of high-volume/low-intensity training, before reducing volume and increasing the proportion of high-intensity training) was characterized by a cyclic progressive increase in training load, the training volume ranged from 7.5 to 10.76 h·wk–1, and pyramidal TID was used. Block periodization improved maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak aerobic power, lactate, and ventilatory thresholds, while traditional periodization improved VO2max, peak aerobic power, and lactate thresholds. In addition, a day-by-day programming approach improved VO2max and ventilatory thresholds. Conclusions: No evidence is currently available favoring a specific periodization model during 8 to 12 weeks in trained road cyclists. However, few studies have examined seasonal impact of different periodization models in a systematic way.

Open access

Ronald F. Zernicke and David H. Perrin