Erratum. A Systematic Review of Digital Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in People With Intellectual Disabilities and/or Autism
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
The Future of Para Report Cards on Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities—A Global Call for Engagement, Data, and Advocacy
Mark S. Tremblay, Iryna Demchenko, John J. Reilly, Salomé Aubert, and Cindy Sit
Response to “Comment on: Differences in Neurocognitive Functions Between Healthy Controls and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Male Athletes Who Passed or Failed Return to Sport Criteria: A Preliminary Study”
Razieh Mofateh, Maryam Kiani Haft Lang, Neda Orakifar, and Shahin Goharpey
Comment on: “Differences in Neurocognitive Functions Between Healthy Controls and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Male Athletes Who Passed or Failed Return to Sport Criteria: A Preliminary Study”
Jérôme Murgier, Guillaume Zunzarren, and Bertrand Garet
“It Looks Good on Paper, But It Was Never Meant to Be Real”: Mixed-Gender Events in the Paralympic Movement
Nikolaus A. Dean, Andrea Bundon, P. David Howe, and Natalie Abele
Although the Paralympic Games have been around for over 60 years, women remain underrepresented in almost all aspects of the Paralympic Movement. It has been suggested that a way to increase women’s involvement is through the implementation of mixed-gender events. On paper, this approach makes sense. However, when it comes to the implementation of mixed-gender opportunities for women, it is less clear how effective these events are in increasing participation by women in Para sport. Through document analysis and interviews with athletes and organizers of mixed-gender Paralympic sport, we explore the various strategies that four mixed-gender sports have used to address the issue of gender parity. Using critical feminist theories, we illustrate how larger social, political, and cultural ideas about gender influence women’s experiences within these events and discuss the potential of using mixed-gender initiatives to address gender parity within the Paralympic Movement.
Nonaccidental Violence Among Elite Athletes in Finland: Associations With Sport Conditions and Mental Well-Being and Ill-Being
Satu Kaski and Ulla Kinnunen
The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of nonaccidental violence among elite athletes in Finland, the predisposing factors to violence, and its consequences for mental well-being and ill-being. A total of 2,045 Finnish athletes participated in the study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to analyze the associations. The results indicated that 38.8% had experienced psychological abuse, 14.7% bullying, 13.3% gender-based harassment, and 5.5% sexual harassment. Female and younger athletes reported more violent experiences than male and older athletes. A team’s safe atmosphere and readiness to act protected athletes from nonaccidental violence, whereas the coach did not play a role. Nonaccidental violence, particularly psychological abuse, was associated with reduced mental well-being and increased ill-being. Our results suggest that it is worth investing in the team’s mutual relationships and safe cooperation when ensuring appropriate behavior and preventing nonaccidental violence among athletes.
Erratum. Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Sportspersonship in Recreational Sport
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Transient Ischemic Attack in a 22-Year-Old NCAA Division I Baseball Athlete: A Case Study
Daisy Luera, Ronald L. Snarr, Sara Posson, Ioannis Liras, George Liras, and Erica M. Filep
Context: A healthy, 22-year-old, male NCAA Division I baseball shortstop was experiencing confusion, chest pain, and tightness during an off-season intersquad scrimmage. The patient did not have any significant medical history or mechanism of head injury. After initial evaluation from the athletic trainer, the patient’s cognitive status began to quickly decline. The emergency action plan was put in place rapidly and referred the patient to the local emergency clinic. Case Presentation: Upon arrival at the emergency department, an electrocardiogram was performed to rule out myocardial infarction or stroke. The first electrocardiogram results returned negative for any cardiac pathology, but a stroke alert was called. The patient was then transported to a level II trauma center due to continual cognitive decline. The patient was diagnosed with transient ischemic attack (TIA) secondary to an undiagnosed patent foramen ovale (PFO) that would later be diagnosed with further evaluation 2 months after the initial TIA incident. After multiple diagnostic and laboratory tests, the PFO went undetected until a 2D echocardiogram was performed and evaluated by a cardiologist. Management and Outcomes: After the confirmation of the congenital defect, surgical intervention was performed to correct the PFO using catheterization. Despite multiple preparticipation examinations, electrocardiograms, and examination of past family history, the PFO went undetected until the patient experienced symptoms of TIA. The discovery of PFO in this 22-year-old athletic individual is unusual because traditional screening techniques (electrocardiogram and preparticipation examinations) failed to detect the congenital defect. Conclusions: Due to the emergent and timely actions of the athletic trainer, the patient has made a full recovery and is able to compete fully in athletic events. This case study amplifies the need for athletic trainers at all sporting events, updated and reviewed emergency action plans, rapid recognition of TIA in athletic individuals, and return-to-play protocol for an athletic individual after TIA.
Pulsed Red and Blue Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Thigh Contusions and Soft Tissue Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Aaron Wells, Justin Rigby, Chris Castel, and Dawn Castel
Context: Contusion and soft tissue injuries are common in sports. Photobiomodultion, light and laser therapy, is an effective aid to increase healing rates and improve function after various injury mechanisms. However, it is unclear how well photobiomodulation improves function after a contusion soft tissue injury. This study aimed to determine the effects of a pulsed red and blue photobiomodulation light patch on muscle function following a human thigh contusion injury. Design: Single-blinded randomized control trial design. Methods: We enrolled 46 healthy participants. Participants completed 5 visits on consecutive days. On the first visit, participants completed a baseline isokinetic quadriceps strength testing protocol at 60°/s and 180°/s. On the second visit, participants were struck in the rectus femoris of the anterior thigh with a tennis ball from a serving machine. Immediately following, participants were treated for 30 minutes with an active or placebo photobiomodulation patch (CareWear light patch system, CareWear Corp). Following the treatment, participants completed the same isokinetic quadriceps strength testing protocol. Participants completed the treatment and isokinetic quadriceps strength test during the following daily visits. We normalized the data by calculating the percent change from baseline. We used a mixed model analysis of covariance, with sex as a covariate, to determine the difference between treatment groups throughout the acute recovery process. Results: We found the active photobiomodulation treatment significantly increased over the placebo group, quadriceps peak torque during the 180°/s test (P = .030), and average power during both the 60°/s (P = .041) and 180°/s (P ≤ .001) assessments. The mean peak torque and average power of 180°/s, at day 4, exceeded the baseline levels by 8.9% and 16.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The red and blue photobiomodulation light patch improved muscle strength and power during the acute healing phase of a human thigh contusion injury model.
Quantitative Muscle Fascicle Tractography Using Brightness-Mode Ultrasound
Hannah Kilpatrick, Emily Bush, Carly Lockard, Xingyu Zhou, Crystal Coolbaugh, and Bruce Damon
A muscle’s architecture, defined as the geometric arrangement of its fibers with respect to its mechanical line of action, impacts its abilities to produce force and shorten or lengthen under load. Ultrasound and other noninvasive imaging methods have contributed significantly to our understanding of these structure–function relationships. The goal of this work was to develop a MATLAB toolbox for tracking and mathematically representing muscle architecture at the fascicle scale, based on brightness-mode ultrasound imaging data. The MuscleUS_Toolbox allows user-performed segmentation of a region of interest and automated modeling of local fascicle orientation; calculation of streamlines between aponeuroses of origin and insertion; and quantification of fascicle length, pennation angle, and curvature. A method is described for optimizing the fascicle orientation modeling process, and the capabilities of the toolbox for quantifying and visualizing fascicle architecture are illustrated in the human tibialis anterior muscle. The toolbox is freely available.