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Open access

Karel Frömel, Josef Mitáš, and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background: This study aimed to present step-determined physical activity trends in adolescents with different activity levels over a period of 10 years. Methods: Pedometers were used to monitor weekly physical activity in 1855 boys and 2648 girls aged 15–19 years recruited from 155 schools in the Czech Republic between 2009 and 2018. Trends for average steps/day and percent of accumulating various levels of steps/day (<10,000, 10,000–13,000, and >13,000 steps/d) were analyzed by sex. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in average steps/day between 2009–2010 and 2017–2018 in boys from 12,355 (3936) steps/d to 10,054 (3730) steps/d and girls from 11,501 (3278) steps/d to 10,216 (3288) steps/d. The percent accumulating <10,000 steps/d increased by 21% in boys and 12% in girls. The percent achieving >13,000 steps/d decreased by 17% in boys and 10% in girls. Conclusions: Objectively collected evidence indicates an overall decrease in Czech adolescents’ steps/day over a 10-year period concurrent with an increase in the percent of boys and girls accumulating <10,000 steps/d. These trends are concerning as they portend a decline in physical activity as adolescents transition to adulthood and continue to age, which also may have major health implications.

Open access

Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne

This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.

Open access

Markus Joseph Duncan, Negin Alivia Riazi, Guy Faulkner, Jenna Diane Gilchrist, Scott Thomas Leatherdale, and Karen Allison Patte

Background: Comprehensive, prospective, longitudinal data are lacking on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on adolescents’ movement behaviors (moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA], sleep, recreational screen use, and strengthening exercises). The purpose was to compare movement behavior changes among adolescents affected by the pandemic with controls. Methods: Survey data from 10,659 students at 82 Canadian secondary schools (aged 12–19 y) during the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 school years were analyzed. One-year change in time spent in movement behaviors and likelihood of meeting Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines was compared between preoutbreak controls (October 2019–March 2020) and early outbreak respondents (May–July 2020) after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results: Compared with controls, the early outbreak group reported a greater decrease in time spent in MVPA and greater increases in time spent in sleep and recreational screen use. The early outbreak group was less likely to meet MVPA and recreational screen time guidelines but more likely to meet guidelines for strengthening exercises and sleep duration. Conclusions: Findings for MVPA and screen time changes were in the same direction as retrospective reports from children and youth samples. Sleep adherence may have improved due to no longer having to commute to school. Strengthening exercises may represent physical activity that is easier to do in the home with minimal equipment leading to improved adherence during restrictions.

Open access

Debra Kriger, Amélie Keyser-Verreault, Janelle Joseph, and Danielle Peers

Intersectional approaches are needed in sport research and administration to create significant changes in access, participation, and leadership. The operationalizing intersectionality framework—graphically represented as a wheel with spokes and points of traction—offers a nonexhaustive, evolving structure that can facilitate contextual, deliberate actions to disrupt overlapping systems of oppression. The framework was assembled to guide E-Alliance, the gender equity in sport in Canada research hub, in embodying its commitment to intersectional approaches and designed for broader application to sport. Current gender equity efforts mostly continue to prioritize the knowledge and needs of White, middle–upper-class, nondisabled, not fat, heteronormative, binary, cisgender women and have yet to achieve parity. Acting meaningfully on commitments to intersectional approaches means focusing on how axes work together and influence each other. The framework can help advance cultural sport psychology and ultimately improve athletic well-being.

Full access

Amy E. Mendham, Julia H. Goedecke, Nyuyki Clement Kufe, Melikhaya Soboyisi, Antonia Smith, Kate Westgate, Soren Brage, and Lisa K. Micklesfield

Background: We first explored the associations between physical behaviors and total and regional adiposity. Second, we examined how reallocating time in different physical behaviors was associated with total body fat mass in men and women from a low-income South African setting. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a sample of 692 participants (384 men and 308 women) aged 41–72 years. Physical behaviors were measured using integrated hip and thigh accelerometry to estimate total movement volume and time spent in sleeping, sitting/lying, standing, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Total body fat mass and regional adiposity were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The associations between total movement volume and measures of regional obesity were mediated by total body adiposity. In men, reallocating 30 minutes of sitting/lying to 30 minutes of MVPA was associated with 1.0% lower fat mass. In women, reallocation of 30 minutes of sitting/lying to MVPA and 30 minutes of standing to MVPA were associated with a 0.3% and 1.4% lower fat mass, respectively. Conclusions: Although the association between physical behaviors and fat mass differed between men and women, the overall public health message is similar; reallocating sedentary time to MVPA is associated with a reduction in fat mass in both men and women.

Open access

Kristopher I. Kapphahn, Jorge A. Banda, K. Farish Haydel, Thomas N. Robinson, and Manisha Desai

Accelerometer data are widely used in research to provide objective measurements of physical activity. Frequently, participants may remove accelerometers during their observation period resulting in missing data referred to as nonwear periods. Common approaches for handling nonwear periods include discarding data (days with insufficient hours or individuals with insufficient valid days) from analyses and single imputation (SI) methods. Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of various discard-, SI-, and multiple imputation (MI)-based approaches on the ability to accurately and precisely characterize the relationship between a summarized measure of accelerometer counts (mean counts per minute) and an outcome (body mass index). Methods: Realistic accelerometer data were simulated under various scenarios that induced nonwear. Data were analyzed using common and MI methods for handling nonwear. Bias, relative standard error, relative mean squared error, and coverage probabilities were compared across methods. Results: MI approaches were superior to commonly applied methods, with bias that ranged from −0.001 to −0.028 that was considerably lower than that of discard-based methods (ranging from −0.050 to −0.057) and SI methods (ranging from −0.061 to −0.081). We also reported substantial variation among MI strategies, with coverage probabilities ranging from .04 to .96. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the benefit of applying MI methods over more commonly applied discard- and SI-based approaches. Additionally, we show that how you apply MI matters, where including data from previously observed acceleration measurements in the imputation model when using MI improves model performance.