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Ding Ding, Pedro C. Hallal, Loretta DiPietro, and Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

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Leonardo Alex Volpato, Julio Cesar Costa, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Catiana Leila Possamai Romanzini, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini

Background: Recent statistical approaches have allowed consideration of the integrated relationships between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) with different health outcomes. The present paper aimed to systematically review the literature and synthesize evidence about associations between hypothetical reallocations from SB to different PA intensities and cardiovascular risk factors in youth. Methods: A systematic search of 8 databases was performed. Observational studies with a population of children and/or adolescents and based on statistical analysis that investigated the associations between time reallocations from SB to PA and cardiovascular risk factors were included. Results: Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Level of evidence (derived from cross-sectional studies) indicated that the reallocation from SB to moderate to vigorous PA was beneficially associated with adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in youth. Reallocation from SB to light PA was not associated with the analyzed outcomes. Associations derived from longitudinal studies were mostly inconclusive. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors could be improved by increasing moderate to vigorous PA at the expense of time spent in SB in pediatric populations. Prospective studies or studies investigating the effects of reallocating sedentary bouts to PA are needed.

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J.D. DeFreese, Daniel J. Madigan, and Henrik Gustafsson

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Daniel Boullosa, João Gustavo Claudino, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Daniel Bok, Irineu Loturco, Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen, Juan García-López, and Carl Foster

Purpose: Monitoring is a fundamental part of the training process to guarantee that the programmed training loads are executed by athletes and result in the intended adaptations and enhanced performance. A number of monitoring tools have emerged during the last century in sport. These tools capture different facets (eg, psychophysiological, physical, biomechanical) of acute training bouts and chronic adaptations while presenting specific advantages and limitations. Therefore, there is a need to identify what tools are more efficient in each sport context for better monitoring of training process. Methods and Results: We present and discuss the fine-tuning approach for training monitoring, which consists of identifying and combining the best monitoring tools with experts’ knowledge in different sport settings, designed to improve (1) the control of actual training loads and (2) understanding of athletes’ training adaptations. Instead of using single-tool approaches or merely subjective decision making, the identification of the best combination of monitoring tools to assist experts’ decisions in each specific context (ie, triangulation) is necessary to better understand the link between acute and chronic adaptations and their impact on health and performance. Future studies should elaborate on the identification of the best combination of monitoring tools for each specific sport setting. Conclusion: The fine-tuning monitoring approach requires the simultaneous use of several valid and practical tools, instead of a single tool, to improve the effectiveness of monitoring practices when added to experts’ knowledge.

Open access

Marine Dupuit, Alice Meignié, Tom Chassard, Ludivine Blanquet, Julien LeHeran, Thomas Delaunay, Elise Bernardeau, Jean-François Toussaint, Martine Duclos, and Juliana Antero

Objectives: Currently, there are no guidelines for implementing the monitoring of menstrual status, including the natural menstrual cycle (NC) or oral contraception (OC), in a sport setting. We aimed to provide a feasible, on-field methodological approach for monitoring NC and OC in female athletes. Methods: We developed a smartphone app with daily questionnaires to monitor both NC and OC phases in 19 elite female soccer players (23.7 [4.4] y) over 7 months. Adherence and compliance were evaluated. The NC and OC phases were based on calendar data to establish an individual menstrual profile for each athlete. Results: The initial questionnaire revealed that the vast majority of female players (80%) were interested in monitoring their menstrual status. The online monitoring yielded high athlete adherence (87.0% [14.2%]) with a slight decrease over the winter break and at the end of the championship, which necessitated adaptations to promote compliance. Monitoring identified the specific menstrual pattern of each athlete and highlighted large interindividual variability. Conclusion: This study assesses, for the first time, the interest of female players in monitoring their menstrual status. It provides a new methodological approach, as well as guidelines for optimizing on-field monitoring. It also anticipates some obstacles sport staff may encounter when trying to implement such follow-up. It is essential to better understand the menstrual profile of athletes and determine its potential impacts on well-being and performance.

Open access

Kerstin Hagberg, Roland Zügner, Peter Thomsen, and Roy Tranberg

Introduction: Mobility restriction following limb loss might lead to a sedentary lifestyle, impacting health. Daily activity monitoring of amputees has focused on prosthetic steps, neglecting overall activity. Purpose: To assess daily activity in individuals with an established amputation and to explore the amount of activity recorded from the prosthesis as compared to the overall activity. Methods: Individuals with a unilateral transfemoral amputation or knee disarticulation who had used a prosthesis in daily life for >1 year and could walk 100 m (unsupported or single aided) were recruited. Descriptive information and prosthetic mobility were collected. Two activPAL™ accelerometers were attached to the nonamputated thigh and the prosthesis, respectively. The mean daily activity over 7 days was compared between the nonamputated limb and the prosthesis. Results: Thirty-nine participants (22 men/17 women; mean age 54 [14.5] years) with amputation mainly due to trauma (59%) or tumor (28%) were included. Overall, participants took 6,125 steps and spent 10.2 hr sedentary, 5.0 hr upright, and 8.7 hr laying per day. Compared to recordings from the nonamputated limb, 85% of sit-to-stand transitions (32/38), 73% of steps (4,449/6,125), and 68% of walking time (1.0/1.5 hr) were recorded from the prosthesis. Recordings seemed to be less adequate for incidental prosthetic steps than for walks. Conclusions: Sedentary behavior accounted for most of the day demonstrating the importance to encourage physical activity among established prosthetic users. The prosthesis is used for daily activity to a great extent. However, noted pitfalls in the recordings call for further refinement of the measurements.