Background: More moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less time in sedentary behavior (SB) may protect against poor mental health in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology may also influence adolescents’ own MVPA and SB. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationship between adolescent MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology using a longitudinal approach. Methods: Adolescents (10–16 y) were recruited for a prospective observational cohort. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Accelerometry was used to measure MVPA and SB. Adolescents were classified by meeting the MVPA guideline (≥60 min/d) and quartiles of SB time, with the lowest amount of time in SB compared to others. Bidirectional associations between MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology were assessed using mixed-effects regression models. Results: At baseline, adolescents (n = 205) were 12.5 (2.0) years, 54.6% women, 59.1% White, and 34.6% African American. In unadjusted models, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower follow-up Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire scores, and fewer were classified as depressed at follow-up compared to others. After adjustment, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower depressive symptomatology at follow-up. Conclusions: Limiting time spent in SB in adolescence may improve future mental health.
Chelsea L. Kracht, Sai S. Pochana, and Amanda E. Staiano
Richard P. Troiano
Accelerometer technology and applications have expanded and evolved rapidly over approximately the past two decades. This commentary, which reflects content presented at a keynote presentation at 8th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM 2022), discusses aspects of this evolution from the author’s perspective. The goal is to provide historical context for newer investigators working with device-based measures of physical activity. The presentation includes discussion of the fielding of accelerometer devices in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, selected recommendations from relevant workshops between 2004 and 2010, and the author’s perspective on the current status of accelerometer use in population surveillance and public health. The important role of collaboration is emphasized.
Chaiane Calonego, Cristine Lima Alberton, Samarita Beraldo Santagnello, Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Cristiane Rios Petrarca, Daniel Umpierre, Elisa Gouvêa Portella, Luana Siqueira Andrade, Rochele Barboza Pinheiro, Maria Laura Brizio Gomes, Mariana Silva Häfele, Gabriela Barreto David, Ronei Silveira Pinto, João Saldanha Henkin, and Stephanie Santana Pinto
Background: To determine the effect of resistance training volume on physical and perceptual outcomes of breast cancer survivors submitted to a combined training program. Design: Randomized single-blinded study. Methods: Nineteen breast cancer survivor women were randomized to a single-set (SS) or a multiple-set (MS) group. Both groups completed an 8-week combined training intervention in which the SS and MS groups performed 1 and 3 sets per resistance exercise, respectively. The following outcomes were assessed preintervention and postintervention: maximal knee extension dynamic strength (1-repetition maximum), quadriceps muscle thickness, peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life. Results: Both interventions increased knee extension 1-repetition maximum (SS: 29.8% [37.5%]; MS: 19.3% [11.8%]), quadriceps muscle thickness (9.4% [4.1%]; 8.9% [5.9%]), and quality of life (4.3% [6.3%]; 7.9% [9.0%]), with no difference between the groups. However, only MS improved cancer-related fatigue (−2.1% [1.7%]) and time to exhaustion (21.3% [14.9%]), whereas peak oxygen uptake remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusions: Cancer-related fatigue and time to exhaustion, improved only in the MS group after the intervention. On the other hand, similar knee extension 1-repetition maximum, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quality of life improvements were observed in breast cancer survivors irrespective of the resistance training volume performed.
Mai ChinAPaw and Manou Anselma
We strongly believe that diversity, equity, and inclusion in research lead to better science, more innovations and more relevant outcomes that better serve society at large. Historically, scientific research is quite WEIRD, meaning that it is dominated by researchers and study samples from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic countries. Such WEIRD research leads to results that better serve a small, privileged group of WEIRD people, widening health inequalities. Research among a selective group with similar backgrounds and perspectives results in bias and hinders innovation. As a result, we end up missing out on the valuable holistic viewpoint that more inclusive research would gain. In this invited commentary based on the International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM) 2022 keynote presentation by Prof. ChinAPaw, we discuss the importance of diversity, equity, and inclusion in research and introduce our vision for AWESOME science—All-inclusive, Worldwide ranging, Equitable, Sincere, Open-minded, Mindful of our own implicit bias, and Essential—that is more inclusive and relevant for everyone regardless of who they are and where they live. More diversity, equity, and inclusion make our collective dance toward healthy societies more beautiful and impactful!
Antonio Moreno-Llamas, Jesús García-Mayor, and Ernesto De la Cruz-Sánchez
Background: A low socioeconomic status (SES) presents lower physical activity; however, the relationship between SES and sedentary behavior (SB) remains unclear. We aimed to assess this association of SES with physical activity (PA) and SB. Methods: We employed representative self-reported data of the European Union from the cross-sectional survey Eurobarometer 2017, comprising a final sample of 13,708 citizens (18–64 y old), to assess the association of SES (education, occupation, and economic issues) with PA and sitting time quartiles, and to describe inequalities in vigorous, moderate, and walking activity and sitting time. Results: Multinomial regressions revealed that people from higher SESs were more likely to report higher PA; nonetheless, higher educational attainment and occupations were also associated with higher sitting time but not with lower economic issues. The inequality, shown by Gini coefficients, describes a socioeconomic gradient in vigorous and moderate activity, from higher inequality in lower statuses to lower inequality in higher statuses. The Gini coefficients also indicated higher socioeconomic inequalities in PA than SB. Conclusions: Higher SESs showed paradoxically more PA and SB; however, sitting time presented smaller differences and a more homogeneous distribution across the population.
Nader Farahpour, Mahboube Alemzadeh, Mehri Mohammadi, Mohammadreza Rezaie, and Paul Allard
Left–right differential erector spinae (ES) muscle strengthening is required to correct ES muscle imbalances. The objective was to test the effect of 6 body positions on the differential activation of the ES muscles. In 14 able-bodied young women, using a surface electromyography system, the bilateral ES muscles activity at the third lumbar (ESL3) and the 10th (EST10) and 6th (EST6) thoracic vertebral levels was measured with the contralateral arm and leg lifted in the prone and quadruped conditions and with a single arm lifted in the quadruped position. Results showed that the activity of the ESL3 was symmetrical (P > .05) and significantly smaller than that of the thoracic ES muscles in all body positions (P < .01). The EST10 and EST6 were differentially activated in all tests (P < .001). Besides, the differential activation was higher in the contralateral-arm and -leg lift in the quadruped position than in the other positions. In conclusion, contralateral-arm and -leg lift and single-arm lift in the quadruped and prone positions are capable of differentially activating the ES muscles on one side more than the other side. Further studies are recommended to examine the effectiveness of these exercises on the correction of ES muscle imbalances in clinical populations.
Unai Latorre Erezuma, Maialen Zelaia Amilibia, Ander Espin Elorza, Camilo Cortés, Jon Irazusta, and Ana Rodriguez-Larrad
This study assessed the effectiveness of a passive back support exoskeleton during a mechanical loading task. Fifteen healthy participants performed a simulated patient transfer task while wearing the Laevo (version 2.5) passive back support exoskeleton. Collected metrics encompassed L5-S1 joint moments, back and abdominal muscle activity, lower body and back kinematics, center of mass displacement, and movement smoothness. A statistical parametric mapping analysis approach was used to overcome limitations from discretization of continuous data. The exoskeleton reduced L5-S1 joint moments during trunk flexion, but wearing the device restricted L5-S1 joint flexion when flexing the trunk as well as hip and knee extension, preventing participants from standing fully upright. Moreover, wearing the device limited center of mass motion in the caudal direction and increased its motion in the anterior direction. Therefore, wearing the exoskeleton partly reduced lower back moments during the lowering phase of the patient transfer task, but there were some undesired effects such as altered joint kinematics and center of mass displacement. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was useful in determining the benefits and hindrances produced by wearing the exoskeleton while performing the simulated patient transfer task and should be utilized in further studies to inform design and appropriate usage.
Tracy Nau, William Bellew, Billie Giles-Corti, Adrian Bauman, and Ben J. Smith
Background: The development of policies that promote and enable physical activity (PA) is a global health priority. Laws are an important policy instrument that can enable enduring beneficial outcomes for individuals, organizations, and environments through multiple mechanisms. This article presents a systematic process for mapping laws relevant to PA, which can be used to understand the role of laws as a powerful PA policy lever. Methods: Building on methods used in public health law research, we developed a protocol for scientific mapping of laws influencing the built environment for PA in Australia. The MonQcle online legal research platform was used for data coding, analysis, and presentation. Results: We describe the 10 key stages of legal mapping that we applied to examine state and territory laws that influence walking and cycling in Australia. Conclusions: Law is a neglected element of policy research for PA. There is a need for accessible legal data to drive the design, investment, and implementation of legal interventions to improve population PA. Legal mapping is a first step toward evaluation of such laws for PA. This paper provides a practical case study and guidance for the 10 stages in legal mapping of laws that influence the built environment for PA.
Raymond Jones, Ene M. Enogela, Taylor L. Buchanan, Thomas W. Buford, David E. Vance, and Pariya L. Fazeli
Background: Inflammation is an indicator of oxidative stress that may contribute to cardiovascular diseases in older people living with HIV (OPWH). Physical activity (PA) may reduce these biomarkers in OPWH, but little is known about the association of PA with inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. We sought to examine the inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarker correlates of PA and sedentary behavior in OPWH. Methods: We included 101 OPWH with complete assessments of PA, sedentary behavior, and biomarker data to examine the association between the volume of PA and inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. Results: In this cohort of OPWH (mean age 55.9 y), 68% were male and 83% were African American/Black. Among OPWH, greater volume of PA (ie, walking, moderate, vigorous, and/or total) was associated with lower systolic (P < .05) and diastolic blood pressure (P < .05), pulse pressure (P < .05), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < .05). Greater duration of sitting was associated with greater triglycerides, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < .05). Conclusions: Although adherence to regular PA among OPWH is low and sedentary behavior is high, the associations between biomarkers and PA suggest a greater volume of PA could attenuate the inflammatory and cardiovascular derangements experienced by OPWH.