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Physical Fitness as a Predictor of Disability Retirement: A 9-Year Register Linked Follow-Up Study

Markus Kuusela, Valtteri Pohjola, Katariina Sarttila, Matti Munukka, Riikka Holopainen, Mikko Laaksonen, Annamari Lundqvist, and Jouni Lahti

Background: To prospectively examine the association between physical fitness and risk of disability retirement in a large population-based cohort. Methods: This study utilized data from Health 2011 survey Physical Activity subsample (n = 4898), combined with information on disability retirement derived from 2 national registers. In total, 2455 individuals aged 18–74 years underwent the physical fitness test protocol concerning measures of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and balance. The outcome variable was disability retirement, during the follow-up period of 9 years. After excluding those not at risk of disability retirement (ie, age ≥63 y) or who had already been granted disability pension, and those who had not completed the fitness protocol, the analytical sample included 1381 participants. Data were analyzed using Cox regression model with SPSS (version 29). Results: During the 9-year follow-up period, 61 individuals (4.4%) transitioned to a disability retirement. Cox regression analysis showed an association between the various physical fitness subdomains and the risk of disability retirement. In model 1, all fitness tests were associated with the risk of disability retirement, except the one-leg stand test with hazard ratios ranging from 1.69 (95% CI, 0.86–3.34) to 5.75 (95% CI, 1.84–17.90). Further adjustment for sociodemographic, health behavior, and health-related covariates attenuated the associations and statistical significance was lost, except for the vertical jump test (hazard ratio = 4.33; 95% CI, 1.32–14.10) and 6-minute walk test (hazard ratio = 3.81; 95% CI, 1.35–10.70). Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of physical fitness for preventing work disability.

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Mentioned, Quoted, and Promoted: How Sports Journalists Constructed a Narrative of Athletes’ Value in the “Name, Image, and Likeness” Era

Shannon Scovel

Using theories of framing and agenda setting, this study explores how journalists covered women athletes during the first week of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s new “name, image, and likeness” (NIL) policy. Athlete representation during this first week was critical, as it established precedent for which athletes, according to media members, held value and were worthy of publicity. The findings from this study show that journalists focused their reporting of NIL on U.S. male athletes, although women athletes such as Olivia Dunne, Haley Cavinder, and Hanna Cavinder were also frequently mentioned in relation to their large social media following, lifestyle, or appearance. Overall, reporters generally promoted a male-dominated NIL agenda, one that undervalued women athletes and minimized their potential role as sporting celebrities in the college sports space.

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What’s Your Poison? Is Sitting Always Health Hindering and Moving Always Health Promoting?

Leon Straker, Charlotte Lund Rasmussen, Nidhi Gupta, and Andreas Holtermann

The clear public messaging from international health authorities is that individuals should “sit less and move more.” While it is acknowledged that this guidance needs to be tailored to the age of people and also to their health, and abilities, the guidance is not tailored to their current level of physical behaviors. This opinion piece aims to highlight that although people with excessive sitting and insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity should sit more and move less, for other people their health would be promoted by sitting more and moving less. Thus, physical behaviors are not always “poison” or “medicine,” but rather the health impact of changes in physical behaviors depends on people’s initial levels. Policy, research, and practice implications of this realization are presented. Only tailoring messaging to age and health status could be far from optimal for people with very different current levels of physical behaviors. Policy, research, and practice will be enhanced when the potential for physical behaviors to be either health hindering or health promoting is adequately considered.

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Community Group-Based Physical Activity Programs for Immigrant Older Adults: A Systematic Realist Review

Jordana Salma, Alesia Au, Sonam Ali, Stephanie Chamberlain, John C. Spence, Allyson Jones, Megan Kennedy, Hongmei Tong, Salima Meherali, Philile Mngomezulu, and Rachel Flynn

Physical activity program interventions often lack sensitivity to the needs of older immigrant adults. The objective of this systematic realist review is to explain how, why, for whom, and under which circumstances community group-based physical activity programs work for immigrant older adults. The initial program theory was developed using prior research, team expertise, social cognitive theory, and knowledge user consultations. The program theory was tested and refined via a systematic review of the literature. Database searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Sports Medicine and Education Index, and SPORTDiscus. A total of 22 sources of evidence met inclusion criteria and included intervention studies, systematic reviews, and a discussion paper. Intervention studies were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The final program theory constituted eight context–mechanism–outcome configurations that highlight the importance of facilitator characteristics, access to safe spaces, group dynamics, and social support. A limitation was the small number and variable quality of included evidence. Physical activity programs that target immigrant older adults must strengthen physical and psychological safety and maximize opportunities for role modeling and socialization. This research was supported by the Alberta Health Services Seniors Health Strategic Clinical Network and is registered in PROSPERO (ID#258179).

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How Can We Equitably Scale-Up Physical Activity Interventions to Ensure Everyone Has Opportunities to Thrive?

Gabriella M. McLoughlin and Jo Salmon

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The Secret Sauce? Taking the Mystery Out of Scaling-Up School-Based Physical Activity Interventions

Heather A. McKay, Sarah G. Kennedy, Heather M. Macdonald, Patti-Jean Naylor, and David R. Lubans

Over the last 4 decades, physical activity researchers have invested heavily in determining “what works” to promote healthy behaviors in schools. Single and multicomponent school-based interventions that target physical education, active transportation, and/or classroom activity breaks effectively increased physical activity among children and youth. Yet, few of these interventions are ever scaled-up and implemented under real-world conditions and in diverse populations. To achieve population-level health benefits, there is a need to design school-based health-promoting interventions for scalability and to consider key aspects of the scale-up process. In this opinion piece, we aim to identify challenges and advance knowledge and action toward scaling-up school-based physical activity interventions. We highlight the key roles of planning for scale-up at the outset, scale-up pathways, trust among partners and program support, program adaptation, evaluation of scale-up, and barriers and facilitators to scaling-up. We draw upon our experience scaling-up effective school-based interventions and provide a solid foundation from which others can work toward bridging the implementation-to-scale-up gap.

Open access

Measuring Active Transportation on National Health Surveys in Canada From 1994 to 2020

Parya Borhani, Kathryn L. Walker, Gregory P. Butler, Valérie Lavergne, Gisèle Contreras, and Stephanie A. Prince

Background: Active transportation (AT), described as self-powered modes of travel (eg, walking and cycling), is an important source of health-promoting physical activity. While AT behaviors have been measured on national health surveys in Canada for over 2 decades, historic prevalence has not been previously reported. We aimed to document the measures of AT on Canada’s various national health surveys, examine AT over time, and interpret them within the context of evolving methods of assessment. Methods: We compiled and summarized the questions used to measure AT among Canadians on 4 national health surveys: National Population Health Survey (1994–1998), Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2020), Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2019), and the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (2010–2018). Among youth and adults (12+ y), we summarized over time: (1) the prevalence of AT participation and (2) time spent in AT (in hours per week) among those who report any AT participation. Where possible, we reported separate estimates of walking and cycling and produced an aggregate estimate of total AT. We stratified results by age group and sex. Results: Changes in AT survey questions over time and between surveys limit the interpretation and comparability of temporal trends. Nevertheless, a consistently higher proportion of females report walking, while a higher proportion of males report cycling. Irrespective of mode, males report spending more total time in AT. Participation in AT tends to decrease with age, with youth reporting the highest rates of AT and young adults often spending the most time in AT. Conclusions: Monitoring trends in AT can help assess patterns of behavior and identify whether promotion strategies are needed or whether population interventions are effective. Our evaluation of AT over time is limited by questions surveyed; however, consistent differences in AT by age and sex are evident over time. Moving forward, ensuring consistency of AT measurement over time is essential to monitoring this important behavior.

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Prevalence and Correlates of Adherence to the Global Total Physical Activity Guideline Based on Step Counting Among 3- to 4-Year-Olds: Evidence From SUNRISE Pilot Studies From 17 Countries

Tawonga W. Mwase-Vuma, Xanne Janssen, Kar Hau Chong, Anthony D. Okely, Mark S. Tremblay, Catherine E. Draper, E. Kipling Webster, Alex Antonio Florindo, Amanda E. Staiano, Bang Nguyen Pham, Chiaki Tanaka, Denise Koh, Hongyan Guan, Hong K. Tang, Marie Löf, Mohammad Sorowar Hossain, Nyaradzai E. Munambah, Penny Cross, PW Prasad Chathurangana, and John J. Reilly

Background: There is limited evidence from globally diverse samples on the prevalence and correlates of meeting the global guideline of 180 minutes per day of total physical activity (TPA) among 3- to 4-year-olds. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 797 (49.2% girls) 3- to 4-year-olds from 17 middle- and high-income countries who participated in the pilot phases 1 and 2 of the SUNRISE International Study of Movement Behaviours in the Early Years. Daily step count was measured using thigh-worn activPAL accelerometers. Children wore the accelerometers for at least one 24-hour period. Children were categorized as meeting the TPA guideline based on achieving ≥11,500 steps per day. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the proportion of meeting the TPA guideline for the overall sample and each of the sociodemographic variables, and 95% CIs were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the sociodemographic correlates of meeting the TPA guideline. Results: Mean daily step count was 10,295 steps per day (SD = 4084). Approximately one-third of the sample (30.9%, 95% CI, 27.6–34.2) met the TPA guideline. The proportion meeting the guideline was significantly lower among girls (adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.51–0.96) and 4-year-olds (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.34–0.75) and higher among rural residents (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI, 1.27–2.49) and those from lower middle-income countries (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI, 0.89–2.04). Conclusions: The findings suggest that a minority of children might meet the TPA guideline globally, and the risk of not meeting the guideline differed by sociodemographic indicators. These findings suggest the need for more surveillance of TPA in young children globally and, possibly, interventions to improve childhood health and development.

Open access

Team Identity and Environmentalism: The Case of Forest Green Rovers

Elizabeth B. Delia, Brian P. McCullough, and Keegan Dalal

Despite consumer concern over climate change, research on environmental issues and sport fandom has focused more on organizational outcomes than on fans themselves. Recognizing fandom can be representative of social movements, and social identity and collective action are utilized in an intrinsic case study of Forest Green Rovers football club supporters (who also identify with environmentalism) to understand the extent to which the club represents a social movement, and whether Forest Green Rovers’ sustainability efforts encourage pro-environment actions. Through interview research, we found supporters’ team and environmental identities cooperate synergistically. Forest Green Rovers is not just representative of environmentalism but has become a politicized identity itself—a means to act for change on environmental issues. We discuss implications concerning identity synergy, team identity as a politicized identity, perceptions of success, collective action, and cognitive alternatives to the status quo. We conclude by noting the unavoidable inseparability of environmental issues and sport consumption.

Open access

Inter-Brand, -Dynamic Range, and -Sampling Rate Comparability of Raw Accelerometer Data as Used in Physical Behavior Research

Annelinde Lettink, Wessel N. van Wieringen, Teatske M. Altenburg, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, and Vincent T. van Hees

Objective: Previous studies that looked at comparability of accelerometer data focused on epoch or recording level comparability. Our study aims to provide insight into the comparability at raw data level. Methods: We performed five experiments with accelerometers attached to a mechanical shaker machine applying movement along a single axis in the horizontal plane. In each experiment, a 1-min no-movement condition was followed by nineteen 2-min shaker frequency conditions (30–250 rpm). We analyzed accelerometer data from Axivity, ActiGraph, GENEActiv, MOX, and activPAL devices. Comparability between commonly used brands and dynamic ranges was assessed in the frequency domain with power spectra and in the time domain with maximum lagged cross-correlation analyses. The influence of sampling rate on magnitude of acceleration across brands was explored visually. All data were published open access. Results: Magnitude of noise in rest was highest in MOX and lowest in ActiGraph. The signal mean power spectral density was equal between brands at low shaker frequency conditions (<3.13 Hz) and between dynamic ranges within the Axivity brand at all shaker frequency conditions. In contrast, the cross-correlation coefficients between time series across brands and dynamic ranges were higher at higher shaking frequencies. Sampling rate affected the magnitude of acceleration most in Axivity and least in GENEActiv. Conclusions: The comparability of raw acceleration signals between brands and/or sampling rates depends on the type of movement. These findings aid a more fundamental understanding and anticipation of differences in behavior estimates between different implementations of raw accelerometry.