The Future of Para Report Cards on Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities—A Global Call for Engagement, Data, and Advocacy
Mark S. Tremblay, Iryna Demchenko, John J. Reilly, Salomé Aubert, and Cindy Sit
“It Looks Good on Paper, But It Was Never Meant to Be Real”: Mixed-Gender Events in the Paralympic Movement
Nikolaus A. Dean, Andrea Bundon, P. David Howe, and Natalie Abele
Although the Paralympic Games have been around for over 60 years, women remain underrepresented in almost all aspects of the Paralympic Movement. It has been suggested that a way to increase women’s involvement is through the implementation of mixed-gender events. On paper, this approach makes sense. However, when it comes to the implementation of mixed-gender opportunities for women, it is less clear how effective these events are in increasing participation by women in Para sport. Through document analysis and interviews with athletes and organizers of mixed-gender Paralympic sport, we explore the various strategies that four mixed-gender sports have used to address the issue of gender parity. Using critical feminist theories, we illustrate how larger social, political, and cultural ideas about gender influence women’s experiences within these events and discuss the potential of using mixed-gender initiatives to address gender parity within the Paralympic Movement.
Nonaccidental Violence Among Elite Athletes in Finland: Associations With Sport Conditions and Mental Well-Being and Ill-Being
Satu Kaski and Ulla Kinnunen
The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of nonaccidental violence among elite athletes in Finland, the predisposing factors to violence, and its consequences for mental well-being and ill-being. A total of 2,045 Finnish athletes participated in the study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to analyze the associations. The results indicated that 38.8% had experienced psychological abuse, 14.7% bullying, 13.3% gender-based harassment, and 5.5% sexual harassment. Female and younger athletes reported more violent experiences than male and older athletes. A team’s safe atmosphere and readiness to act protected athletes from nonaccidental violence, whereas the coach did not play a role. Nonaccidental violence, particularly psychological abuse, was associated with reduced mental well-being and increased ill-being. Our results suggest that it is worth investing in the team’s mutual relationships and safe cooperation when ensuring appropriate behavior and preventing nonaccidental violence among athletes.
Erratum. Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Sportspersonship in Recreational Sport
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Quantitative Muscle Fascicle Tractography Using Brightness-Mode Ultrasound
Hannah Kilpatrick, Emily Bush, Carly Lockard, Xingyu Zhou, Crystal Coolbaugh, and Bruce Damon
A muscle’s architecture, defined as the geometric arrangement of its fibers with respect to its mechanical line of action, impacts its abilities to produce force and shorten or lengthen under load. Ultrasound and other noninvasive imaging methods have contributed significantly to our understanding of these structure–function relationships. The goal of this work was to develop a MATLAB toolbox for tracking and mathematically representing muscle architecture at the fascicle scale, based on brightness-mode ultrasound imaging data. The MuscleUS_Toolbox allows user-performed segmentation of a region of interest and automated modeling of local fascicle orientation; calculation of streamlines between aponeuroses of origin and insertion; and quantification of fascicle length, pennation angle, and curvature. A method is described for optimizing the fascicle orientation modeling process, and the capabilities of the toolbox for quantifying and visualizing fascicle architecture are illustrated in the human tibialis anterior muscle. The toolbox is freely available.
The History and Future of Neuromusculoskeletal Biomechanics
David G. Lloyd, Ilse Jonkers, Scott L. Delp, and Luca Modenese
The Executive Council of the International Society of Biomechanics has initiated and overseen the commemorations of the Society’s 50th Anniversary in 2023. This included multiple series of lectures at the ninth World Congress of Biomechanics in 2022 and XXIXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics in 2023, all linked to special issues of International Society of Biomechanics’ affiliated journals. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Biomechanics is dedicated to the biomechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system. The reader is encouraged to explore this special issue which comprises 6 papers exploring the current state-of the-art, and future directions and roles for neuromusculoskeletal biomechanics. This editorial presents a very brief history of the science of the neuromusculoskeletal system’s 4 main components: the central nervous system, musculotendon units, the musculoskeletal system, and joints, and how they biomechanically integrate to enable an understanding of the generation and control of human movement. This also entails a quick exploration of contemporary neuromusculoskeletal biomechanics and its future with new fields of application.
Tapping Into Skeletal Muscle Biomechanics for Design and Control of Lower Limb Exoskeletons: A Narrative Review
Zahra S. Mahdian, Huawei Wang, Mohamed Irfan Mohamed Refai, Guillaume Durandau, Massimo Sartori, and Mhairi K. MacLean
Lower limb exoskeletons and exosuits (“exos”) are traditionally designed with a strong focus on mechatronics and actuation, whereas the “human side” is often disregarded or minimally modeled. Muscle biomechanics principles and skeletal muscle response to robot-delivered loads should be incorporated in design/control of exos. In this narrative review, we summarize the advances in literature with respect to the fusion of muscle biomechanics and lower limb exoskeletons. We report methods to measure muscle biomechanics directly and indirectly and summarize the studies that have incorporated muscle measures for improved design and control of intuitive lower limb exos. Finally, we delve into articles that have studied how the human–exo interaction influences muscle biomechanics during locomotion. To support neurorehabilitation and facilitate everyday use of wearable assistive technologies, we believe that future studies should investigate and predict how exoskeleton assistance strategies would structurally remodel skeletal muscle over time. Real-time mapping of the neuromechanical origin and generation of muscle force resulting in joint torques should be combined with musculoskeletal models to address time-varying parameters such as adaptation to exos and fatigue. Development of smarter predictive controllers that steer rather than assist biological components could result in a synchronized human–machine system that optimizes the biological and electromechanical performance of the combined system.
Eras of Burnout Research: What Does the Past Tell Us About the Future of Burnout in Sport?
J.D. DeFreese, Daniel J. Madigan, and Henrik Gustafsson
Walking Kinematic Coordination Becomes More In-Phase at Extreme Inclines
Alexis D. Gidley and Joshua P. Bailey
Previous research has shown that there are differences in mechanical energy, kinematics, and muscle activation when comparing walking on level and incline surfaces, especially on inclines above 15%. Muscle activations are significantly different while walking on extreme inclines, suggesting a different coordination pattern. We utilized continuous relative phase to assess walking kinematic coordination with respect to increased incline angles. Twelve healthy, college-aged individuals walked for 7 inclines of 1 minute each on a motorized treadmill at 3 mph at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% inclines. Kinematic data were collected during the last 20 seconds of each stage (120 Hz). Segmental and joint angles and angular velocities in the sagittal plane were calculated, from which continuous relative phase was determined for 3 joint couples: hip–knee, hip–ankle, and knee–ankle. There were significant differences in the coordination patterns during the first part of the contact phase in the hip–knee and hip–ankle couplings between the 0% and 30% inclines, with all 3 joint couplings becoming more in-phase at inclines above 15%. Importantly, the hip–knee coupling changed significantly from more out-of-phase to more in-phase between 10% and 15% incline. Shifting lower-extremity joint coordination in response to extreme inclines identifies potential coordinative strategies to achieve steep walking.
Prediction of Model Generated Patellofemoral Joint Contact Forces Using Principal Component Prediction and Reconstruction
Myles Ashall, Mitchell G.A. Wheatley, Chris Saliba, Kevin J. Deluzio, and Michael J. Rainbow
It is not currently possible to directly and noninvasively measure in vivo patellofemoral joint contact force during dynamic movement; therefore, indirect methods are required. Simple models may be inaccurate because patellofemoral contact forces vary for the same knee flexion angle, and the patellofemoral joint has substantial out-of-plane motion. More sophisticated models use 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics coupled to a subject-specific anatomical model to predict contact forces; however, these models are time consuming and expensive. We applied a principal component analysis prediction and regression method to predict patellofemoral joint contact forces derived from a robust musculoskeletal model using exclusively optical motion capture kinematics (external approach), and with both patellofemoral and optical motion capture kinematics (internal approach). We tested this on a heterogeneous population of asymptomatic subjects (n = 8) during ground-level walking (n = 12). We developed equations that successfully capture subject-specific gait characteristics with the internal approach outperforming the external. These approaches were compared with a knee-flexion based model in literature (Brechter model). Both outperformed the Brechter model in interquartile range, limits of agreement, and the coefficient of determination. The equations generated by these approaches are less computationally demanding than a musculoskeletal model and may act as an effective tool in future rapid gait analysis and biofeedback applications.