Moral identity and moral disengagement have been linked with doping likelihood. However, experiments testing the temporal direction of these relationships are absent. The authors conducted one cross-sectional and two experimental studies investigating the conjunctive effects of moral identity and moral disengagement on doping likelihood (or intention). Dispositional moral identity was inversely (marginally), and doping moral disengagement, positively, associated with doping intention (Study 1). Manipulating situations to amplify opportunities for moral disengagement increased doping likelihood via anticipated guilt (Study 2). Moreover, dispositional moral identity (Study 2) and inducing moral identity (Study 3) were linked with lower doping likelihood and attenuated the relationship between doping moral disengagement and doping likelihood. However, the suppressing effect of moral identity on doping likelihood was overridden when opportunities for moral disengagement were amplified. These findings support multifaceted antidoping efforts, which include simultaneously enhancing athlete moral identity and personal responsibility alongside reducing social opportunities for moral disengagement.
Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse
Elena López-Cañada, José Devís-Devís, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Sofía Pereira-García, Jorge Fuentes-Miguel and Víctor Pérez-Samaniego
Background: This study describes the prevalence, frequency, and type of physical activity and sport (PAS) practiced by trans persons before and after their gender disclosure (GD). Methods: A face-to-face survey was administered to 212 Spanish trans persons, aged from 10 to 62 years old. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. Results: About 75.5% of the trans persons in this study engaged in PAS and more than 50% did so ≥3 times/week, which is similar as in the general Spanish population. Participation was higher in trans men (78.7%) than trans women (72%). However, GD emerges as a key issue in characterizing trans persons’ PAS participation. A group of 14.5% of them stopped activity after GD. Participation in nonorganized PAS was higher than in organized PAS, and this difference is greater after GD because most participants gave up organized PAS in favor of nonorganized PAS. Trans persons preferred individual sports and activities than team sports before and after GD, and the top 3 activities were jogging, walking, and bodybuilding. Trans men participation was higher than trans women in team PAS, whereas individual PAS were equally practiced before and after GD. Participation in football, swimming, basketball, dancing, and volleyball declined after GD, whereas bodybuilding increased in trans men. Conclusions: The results show that the high involvement of trans persons coincides with strategies used to hide or conceal their gender identities when participating in PAS. A decrease in PAS participation is observed after GD probably because it is an acute potential period of anxiety, discrimination, and victimization caused by trans persons’ body exposure.
Nikita Rowley, James Steele, Matthew Wade, Robert James Copeland, Steve Mann, Gary Liguori, Elizabeth Horton and Alfonso Jimenez
Objectives: To examine if exercise referral schemes (ERSs) are associated with meaningful changes in physical activity in a large cohort of individuals throughout England, Scotland, and Wales from The National Referral Database. Methods: Data were obtained from 5246 participants from 12 different ERSs, lasting 6–12 weeks. The preexercise referral scheme and changes from the preexercise to the postexercise referral scheme in self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores were examined. A 2-stage individual patient data meta-analysis was used to generate the effect estimates. Results: For the pre-ERS metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week, the estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 676 MET minutes per week (539 to 812). For the change in MET minutes per week, the estimate (95% CI) was an increase of 540 MET minutes per week (396 to 684). Changes in the total PA levels occurred as a result of increases in vigorous activity of 17 minutes (95% CI, 9 to 24), increases in moderate activity of 29 minutes (95% CI, 22 to 36), and reductions in sitting of −61 minutes (95% CI, −78 to −43), though little change in walking (−5 min; 95% CI, −14 to 5) was found. Conclusions: Most participants undergoing ERSs are already “moderately active.” Changes in PA behavior associated with participation are through increased moderate to vigorous PA and reduced sitting. However, this was insufficient to change the International Physical Activity Questionnaire category, and the participants were still “moderately active.”
Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva and Rodolfo Paula Vieira
Background: The progressive dysfunction of the immune system during aging appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of several age-related disorders. However, regular physical exercise can present “antiaging” effects on several physiological systems. Methods: A narrative review of studies investigating the chronic effects of exercise and physical activity on the immune system and its association with age-related chronic diseases was carried out according to the guidelines for writing a narrative review. Results: There is compelling evidence suggesting that age-related immune system alterations play a key role on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, hypertension, chronic heart failure, type 2 diabetes, obesity, arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On the other hand, the regular practice of physical activity appears to improve most of the inflammatory/immunological processes involved in these diseases. Conclusion: Epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies permit us to affirm that regular physical activity improves immunomodulation and may play a key role in the prevention and treatment of several age-related chronic diseases. However, further studies are needed to better describe the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of physical exercise in specific organs of older individuals, as well as the mechanisms involved in such response.
Alison Griffin, Tim Roselli and Susan L. Clemens
Background: Health benefits of physical activity (PA) accrue with small increases in PA, with the greatest benefits for those transitioning from inactivity to any level of PA. This study examined whether self-reported PA time in Queensland adults changed between 2004 and 2018. Methods: The Queensland government conducts regular cross-sectional telephone surveys. Between 2004 and 2018, adults aged 18–75 years answered identical questions about their weekly minutes of walking, moderate PA, and vigorous PA. Hurdle regression estimated the average annual change in weekly minutes of PA overall and by activity type, focusing on sociodemographic differences in trends. Results: The sample size averaged 1764 (2004–2008) and 10,188 (2009–2018), totaling 107,171 participants aged 18–75 years. Unadjusted PA increased by 10 minutes per week per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8–11.1) overall, with increases for most subgroups. Adjusted PA increased by 10.5 minutes per week per year (95% CI, 9.4–11.7). Trends differed by employment—employed adults and those not in the labor force increased by 14.3 (95% CI, 12.8–15.8) and 2.2 minutes per week per year (95% CI, 0.4–4.0), respectively, with no increase for unemployed adults. The increases were due to both an increased prevalence of doing any activity and an increased average duration among active adults. Conclusions: Since 2004, PA time has increased for Queensland adults, with substantial variability by employment status.
Emily Budzynski-Seymour, Rebecca Conway, Matthew Wade, Alex Lucas, Michelle Jones, Steve Mann and James Steele
Background: Physical activity (PA) promotes health and well-being. For students, university represents a transitional period, including increased independence over lifestyle behaviors, in addition to new stressors and barriers to engaging in PA. It is, therefore, important to monitor PA trends in students to gain a greater understanding about the role it might play in physical and mental well-being, as well as other factors, such as attainment and employability. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2016 in Scottish universities and colleges, and in 2017 in universities and colleges across the United Kingdom, and the data were pooled for the present study (N = 11,650). Cumulative ordinal logistic regression was used to model the association between PA levels and mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability. Results: Only 51% of the respondents met the recommended levels of moderate to vigorous PA per week. There was a linear relationship between PA levels and all outcomes, with better scores in more active students. Conclusions: UK university students are insufficiently active compared with the general population of 16- to 24-year olds. Yet, students with higher PA report better outcomes for mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability.
Jillian J. Haszard, Kim Meredith-Jones, Victoria Farmer, Sheila Williams, Barbara Galland and Rachael Taylor
Although 24-hour time-use data are increasingly being examined in relation to indices of health, consensus has yet to be reached about the best way to present estimates from compositional analyses. This analysis explored the impact of different presentations of results when assessing the relationship between 24-hour time-use and body mass index (BMI) z-score using compositional analysis of 5-day actigraphy data in 742 children. First it was found that reallocating non-wear time to day-time components only (sedentary behavior, light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]) before normalization to 24 hours provided stronger estimates with BMI z-score than simply removing non-wear time before normalization. Estimates for sleep time were substantially affected, where associations with BMI z-score nearly doubled (mean difference [95% CI] in BMI z-score for 10% longer sleep were −0.20 [−0.32, −0.08] compared to −0.11 [−0.23, 0.002]). Presenting estimates in terms of a greater number of minutes in a component, relative to all others, showed MVPA to be the strongest predictor of BMI z-score, while estimates in terms of the proportion of minutes showed sleep to be the strongest predictor. Both presentations have value. However, presentations in terms of one-to-one “substitutions” of time may need careful interpretation due to the uneven distribution of time in each component. In conclusion, when analyzing relationships between 24-hour time-use and health outcomes, non-wear time and presentation of estimates can impact final conclusions. As a result, the current understanding of the importance of sleep for child health may be underestimated.
Kelly R. Evenson and Camden L. Spade
Purpose: A systematic review to summarize the validity and reliability of steps, distance, energy expenditure, speed, elevation, heart rate, and sleep assessed by Garmin activity trackers. Methods: Searches included studies published through December 31, 2018. Correlation coefficients (CC) were assessed as low (<0.60), moderate (0.60 to <0.75), good (0.75 to <0.90), or excellent (≥0.90). Mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) were assessed as acceptable at <5% in controlled conditions and <10% for free-living conditions. Results: Overall, 32 studies of adults documented validity. Four of these studies also documented reliability. The sample size ranged from 1–95 for validity and 4–31 for reliability testing. Step inter- and intra-reliability was good-to-excellent and speed intra-reliability was excellent. No other features were explored for reliability. Step validity, across 16 studies, generally indicated good-to-excellent CC and acceptable MAPE. Distance validity, tested in three studies, generally indicated poor CC and MAPE that exceeded acceptable limits, with both over and underestimation. Energy expenditure validity, across 12 studies, generally indicated wide variability in CC and MAPE that exceeded acceptable limits. Heart rate validity in five studies had low-to-excellent CC and all MAPE exceeded acceptable limits. Speed, elevation, and sleep validity were assessed in only one or two studies each; for sleep, the criterion relied on self-report rather than polysomnography. Conclusion: This systematic review of Garmin activity trackers among adults indicated higher validity of steps; few studies on speed, elevation, and sleep; and lower validity for distance, energy expenditure, and heart rate. Intra- and inter-device feature reliability needs further testing.
Jason A. Bennie, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Jan Seghers, Stuart J.H. Biddle and Katrien De Cocker
Background: Muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) is a component of the World Health Organization’s “2010 Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.” However, its participation trends are seldom examined in physical activity surveillance. This study describes the prevalence, trends, and correlates of MSE among a large sample of US adults. Methods: The data were analyzed from the 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Self-reported MSE participation was assessed using the same validated survey item. Population-weighted proportions were calculated for (1) “insufficient” (0–1 time/wk) or (2) “sufficient MSE” (≥2 times/wk). Prevalence ratios of those reporting sufficient MSE across sociodemographic characteristics were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The data were available for 1,735,626 participants (≥18 y). Over the 7-year monitoring period, the prevalence of sufficient MSE showed a small (1.2%) but statistically significant increase (2011 = 29.1%; 2013 = 29.4%; 2015 = 30.2%; and 2017 = 30.3%, P < .001 for linear trend). Older adults, women, and those with lower education/income were consistently less likely to report sufficient MSE, compared with their counterparts. Conclusions: From 2011 to 2017, between 69.7% and 70.9% of US adults did not meet the MSE guidelines. Consistently low participation levels highlight the need to provide support for uptake of or adherence to MSE at the population level.
Jemima C. John, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna Hoelscher, Michael D. Swartz and Chuck Huber
Introduction: Associations across self-efficacy, social support, and multiple measures of physical activity (PA) have not been thoroughly explored in hospital employees. Methods: Validated surveys assessed psychosocial factors; the IPAQ-long assessed PA, and mixed-effects analyses examined relations between psychosocial variables and PA in 920 employees from 6 Texas hospitals. Results: At P <.05, self-efficacy was significantly associated with light (β = 1.67), moderate (β = 1.63), and vigorous (β = 2.78) leisure PA; with domestic PA (β = 1.64); and with moderate commute PA (β = 0.03). At P < .05, family social-support was significantly associated with light (β = 0.94), moderate (β = 0.63), and vigorous (β = .74) leisure PA; with moderate (β = 0.46) and vigorous (β = 1.24) occupation PA; with light (β = 0.58) and moderate (β = 0.20) commute PA; and with domestic PA (β = 1.18). At P < .05, social support from friends was significantly associated with light (β = 0.74), moderate (β = 0.58), and vigorous (β = .91) leisure PA; with moderate commute (β = 0.21); and with domestic PA (β = 0.82). Conclusion: Interventions must emphasize self-efficacy–building strategies and the role of family support to meaningfully impact PA behaviors in uniquethis unique population.