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Christopher C. Moore, Aston K. McCullough, Elroy J. Aguiar, Scott W. Ducharme and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background: The authors conducted a scoping review as a first step toward establishing harmonized (ie, consistent and compatible), empirically based best practices for validating step-counting wearable technologies. Purpose: To catalog studies validating step-counting wearable technologies during treadmill ambulation. Methods: The authors searched PubMed and SPORTDiscus in August 2019 to identify treadmill-based validation studies that employed the criterion of directly observed (including video recorded) steps and cataloged study sample characteristics, protocol details, and analytical procedures. Where reported, speed- and wear location–specific mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values were tabulated. Weighted median MAPE values were calculated by wear location and a 0.2-m/s speed increment. Results: Seventy-seven eligible studies were identified: most had samples averaging 54% (SD = 5%) female and 27 (5) years of age, treadmill protocols consisting of 3 to 5 bouts at speeds of 0.8 (0.1) to 1.6 (0.2) m/s, and reported measures of bias. Eleven studies provided MAPE values at treadmill speeds of 1.1 to 1.8 m/s; their weighted median MAPE values were 7% to 11% for wrist-worn, 1% to 4% for waist-worn, and ≤1% for thigh-worn devices. Conclusions: Despite divergent study methodologies, the authors identified common practices and summarized MAPE values representing device step-count accuracy during treadmill walking. These initial empirical findings should be further refined to ultimately establish harmonized best practices for validating wearable technologies.

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Assumpta Ensenyat, Gemma Espigares-Tribo, Leonardo Machado-Da-Silva, Xenia Sinfreu-Bergués and Alfonso Blanco

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a high-intensity semisupervised exercise program alongside lifestyle counseling as an intervention for managing cardiometabolic risk in sedentary adults. Methods: A 40-week 3-arm randomized controlled clinical trial (16-wk intervention and 24-wk follow-up) was used. Seventy-five sedentary adults (34–55 y) with at least 1 cardiometabolic risk factor were randomized into one of the following arms: (1) aerobic interval training (AIT) plus lifestyle counseling (n = 25), (2) low- to moderate-intensity continuous training plus lifestyle counseling (traditional continuous training, TCT) (n = 27), or (3) lifestyle counseling alone (COU) (n = 23). Metabolic syndrome severity scores, accelerometer-based physical activity, and self-reported dietary habits were assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up. Results: AIT was well accepted with high enjoyment scores. All groups showed similar improvements in metabolic syndrome severity scores (standardized effect size = 0.46) and dietary habits (standardized effect size = 0.30). Moderate to vigorous physical activity increased in all study groups, with the number of responders higher in AIT and TCT groups (50%) than in COU group (21%). Both AIT and TCT had a greater impact on sedentary behavior than COU (63.5% vs 30.4% responders). Conclusions: AIT appears to be a feasible and effective strategy in sedentary individuals with cardiometabolic risk factors. AIT could be included in intervention programs tackling unhealthy lifestyles.

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Kwok W. Ng, Gorden Sudeck, Adilson Marques, Alberto Borraccino, Zuzana Boberova, Jana Vasickova, Riki Tesler, Sami Kokko and Oddrun Samdal

Background: Regular physical activity and doing well in school are important for growing adolescents. In this study, the associations between physical activity and perceived school performance (PSP) are examined together. Methods: Young adolescents from 42 countries (n = 193,949) in Europe and Canada were examined for associations between self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and PSP. Multinominal analyses were conducted with 0 to 2 days of MVPA and below average PSP as reference categories. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported for pooled data and individual countries after controlling for family affluence scale. Results: Girls had better PSP than boys, yet more boys participated in daily MVPA than girls. The associations between PSP and MVPA were inverted U shaped. The strongest association for very good PSP was among young adolescents who reported 5 to 6 days MVPA (odds ratios = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–2.4) after controlling for family affluence scale. Conclusions: Young adolescents with average or better PSP took part in at least 3 days of MVPA in a week, suggesting that participating in some MVPA was positively associated with PSP. More days of MVPA in a week, especially for young adolescents with below average PSP, would be beneficial for health and school performance.

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Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer

Background: The World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 states that physical activity interventions should strengthen peoples’ competencies for health. Yet, frameworks that bundle pivotal competencies for a healthy and physically active lifestyle have not been extensively discussed in the past. Results: In the present article, the authors therefore present the model of Physical Activity-related Health Competence (PAHCO), an integrative structure model including the 3 areas of movement competence, control competence, and self-regulation competence. After providing a rationale for the use of the competence concept, the authors focus on implications from the PAHCO model to guide interventions for the promotion of a healthy and physically active lifestyle. The authors argue that the PAHCO model is located at the interface between health literacy and physical literacy, research areas that have gained increasing scholarly attention in recent years. In addition, PAHCO appears to be compatible with the concept of health capability because it can represent the important aspect of agency. Conclusions: The article concludes with a scientific positioning of model components and some empirical results that have been accumulated so far.

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Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse

Moral identity and moral disengagement have been linked with doping likelihood. However, experiments testing the temporal direction of these relationships are absent. The authors conducted one cross-sectional and two experimental studies investigating the conjunctive effects of moral identity and moral disengagement on doping likelihood (or intention). Dispositional moral identity was inversely (marginally), and doping moral disengagement, positively, associated with doping intention (Study 1). Manipulating situations to amplify opportunities for moral disengagement increased doping likelihood via anticipated guilt (Study 2). Moreover, dispositional moral identity (Study 2) and inducing moral identity (Study 3) were linked with lower doping likelihood and attenuated the relationship between doping moral disengagement and doping likelihood. However, the suppressing effect of moral identity on doping likelihood was overridden when opportunities for moral disengagement were amplified. These findings support multifaceted antidoping efforts, which include simultaneously enhancing athlete moral identity and personal responsibility alongside reducing social opportunities for moral disengagement.

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Seigo Mitsutake, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shiho Amagasa, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shigeru Inoue and Koichiro Oka

Background: The present study examined the cluster of domain-specific sedentary behaviors (SBs) and their associations with physical function among community-dwelling older adults to identify the target groups that require intervention for SBs. Methods: A total of 314 older adults who participated in a population-based cross-sectional survey and an on-site functional assessment in Matsudo City in Chiba participated in this study. Participants were asked to report the daily average of 6 domain-specific SBs. To identify the cluster of domain-specific SBs, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the Ward method. Analysis of covariance adjusted for sociodemographic factors, exercise habit, chronic disease, and total SB time was performed to examine the associations between each cluster and physical functional status. Results: The average age of the participants was 74.5 (5.2) years. The 4 clusters identified were leisure cluster, low cluster, work and personal computer use cluster, and television viewing cluster. The analysis of covariance adjusted for covariates showed that grip strength (P = .01), maximum walking speed (P = .03), and 1-leg standing time (P = .03) were significantly poorer in the television viewing cluster than other clusters. Conclusions: It has been concluded that the television viewing group identified as a high-risk group of physical functional decline; therefore, interventions targeting this group are needed to prevent physical functional decline.

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Elena López-Cañada, José Devís-Devís, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Sofía Pereira-García, Jorge Fuentes-Miguel and Víctor Pérez-Samaniego

Background: This study describes the prevalence, frequency, and type of physical activity and sport (PAS) practiced by trans persons before and after their gender disclosure (GD). Methods: A face-to-face survey was administered to 212 Spanish trans persons, aged from 10 to 62 years old. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. Results: About 75.5% of the trans persons in this study engaged in PAS and more than 50% did so ≥3 times/week, which is similar as in the general Spanish population. Participation was higher in trans men (78.7%) than trans women (72%). However, GD emerges as a key issue in characterizing trans persons’ PAS participation. A group of 14.5% of them stopped activity after GD. Participation in nonorganized PAS was higher than in organized PAS, and this difference is greater after GD because most participants gave up organized PAS in favor of nonorganized PAS. Trans persons preferred individual sports and activities than team sports before and after GD, and the top 3 activities were jogging, walking, and bodybuilding. Trans men participation was higher than trans women in team PAS, whereas individual PAS were equally practiced before and after GD. Participation in football, swimming, basketball, dancing, and volleyball declined after GD, whereas bodybuilding increased in trans men. Conclusions: The results show that the high involvement of trans persons coincides with strategies used to hide or conceal their gender identities when participating in PAS. A decrease in PAS participation is observed after GD probably because it is an acute potential period of anxiety, discrimination, and victimization caused by trans persons’ body exposure.

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Nikita Rowley, James Steele, Matthew Wade, Robert James Copeland, Steve Mann, Gary Liguori, Elizabeth Horton and Alfonso Jimenez

Objectives: To examine if exercise referral schemes (ERSs) are associated with meaningful changes in physical activity in a large cohort of individuals throughout England, Scotland, and Wales from The National Referral Database. Methods: Data were obtained from 5246 participants from 12 different ERSs, lasting 6–12 weeks. The preexercise referral scheme and changes from the preexercise to the postexercise referral scheme in self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores were examined. A 2-stage individual patient data meta-analysis was used to generate the effect estimates. Results: For the pre-ERS metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week, the estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 676 MET minutes per week (539 to 812). For the change in MET minutes per week, the estimate (95% CI) was an increase of 540 MET minutes per week (396 to 684). Changes in the total PA levels occurred as a result of increases in vigorous activity of 17 minutes (95% CI, 9 to 24), increases in moderate activity of 29 minutes (95% CI, 22 to 36), and reductions in sitting of −61 minutes (95% CI, −78 to −43), though little change in walking (−5 min; 95% CI, −14 to 5) was found. Conclusions: Most participants undergoing ERSs are already “moderately active.” Changes in PA behavior associated with participation are through increased moderate to vigorous PA and reduced sitting. However, this was insufficient to change the International Physical Activity Questionnaire category, and the participants were still “moderately active.”

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Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

Background: The progressive dysfunction of the immune system during aging appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of several age-related disorders. However, regular physical exercise can present “antiaging” effects on several physiological systems. Methods: A narrative review of studies investigating the chronic effects of exercise and physical activity on the immune system and its association with age-related chronic diseases was carried out according to the guidelines for writing a narrative review. Results: There is compelling evidence suggesting that age-related immune system alterations play a key role on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, hypertension, chronic heart failure, type 2 diabetes, obesity, arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On the other hand, the regular practice of physical activity appears to improve most of the inflammatory/immunological processes involved in these diseases. Conclusion: Epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies permit us to affirm that regular physical activity improves immunomodulation and may play a key role in the prevention and treatment of several age-related chronic diseases. However, further studies are needed to better describe the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of physical exercise in specific organs of older individuals, as well as the mechanisms involved in such response.