Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 179 items for :

  • Pediatric Exercise Science x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All
Free access

Children With Cardiac Disease and Heat Exposure: Catastrophic Converging Consequences?

Luc Souilla, Pascal Amedro, and Shawnda A. Morrison

The detrimental impact of extreme heat exposure on the health and well-being of children is widely acknowledged. The direct and indirect effects of climate change have led to an increased risk of certain cardiovascular events which may be particularly harmful to children who are born with, or develop, heart disease. Purpose: To highlight the worrying paucity of investigative research aimed at differentiating how higher ambient temperatures further tax an already compromised cardiovascular system in children. Methods: This commentary describes basic thermoregulatory concepts relevant to the healthy pediatric population and summarizes common heart diseases observed in this population. Results: We describe how heat stress and exercise are important factors clinicians should more readily consider when treating children with heart disease. Countermeasures to physical inactivity are suggested for children, parents, clinicians, and policymakers to consider. Conclusions: As sudden, excessive heat exposures continue to impact our rapidly warming world, vulnerable populations like children with underlying heart conditions are at greater heat health risk, especially when coupled with the negative physical activity and fitness trends observed worldwide.

Free access

Editor’s Notes

Craig A. Williams

Free access

Abstracts From the XXXIII Pediatric Work Physiology Conference Hosted by Swansea University (September 2023, Chepstow, Wales)

Free access

Editor’s Notes

Craig A. Williams

Free access

New Insights Into Accelerometer-Measured Habitual Physical Activity and Sedentary Time During Early Recovery in Pediatric Concussion

Bhanu Sharma, Joyce Obeid, Carol DeMatteo, Michael D. Noseworthy, and Brian W. Timmons

Purpose: Concussion management is shifting away from a rest-is-best approach, as data now suggest that exercise-is-medicine for this mild brain injury. Despite this, we have limited data on habitual physical activity following concussion. Therefore, our objective was to quantify accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in children with concussion (within the first month of injury) and healthy controls. We hypothesized that children with concussion would be less active than their healthy peers. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of prospectively collected accelerometer data. Our sample included children with concussion (n = 60, 31 females) and historical controls (n = 60) matched for age, sex, and season of accelerometer wear. Results: Children with concussion were significantly more sedentary than controls (mean difference [MD], 38.3 min/d, P = .006), and spent less time performing light physical activity (MD, −19.5 min/d, P = .008), moderate physical activity (MD, −9.8 min/d, P < .001), and vigorous physical activity (MD, −12.0 min/d, P < .001); these differences were observed from 8:00 AM to 9:00 PM. Sex-specific analyses identified that girls with concussion were less active and more sedentary than both boys with concussion (P = .010) and healthy girls (P < .010). Conclusion: There is an activity deficit observed within the first month of pediatric concussion. Physical activity guidelines should address this while considering sex effects.

Open access

Physical Activity Levels During School Recess in a Nationally Representative Sample of 10- to 11-Year-Olds

Lan Sum Wong, John J. Reilly, Paul McCrorie, and Deirdre M. Harrington

Purpose: School recess provides a valuable opportunity for children’s daily moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). This study aimed to quantify MVPA during school recess in a representative sample of Scottish children and examine whether recess MVPA varied by gender, socioeconomic status, season, urban/rural residency, and recess length. Method: Five-day accelerometry MVPA data were analyzed from 773 children (53.9% girls, 46.1% boys, 10- to 11-y-olds) from 471 schools. Binary logistic regression explored associations between meeting/not meeting the recommendation to spend 40% of recess time in MVPA and the aforementioned risk factors. Descriptive recess data were also analyzed. Results: Participants spent an average of 3.2 minutes (SD 2.1) in MVPA during recess. Girls engaged in 2.5 minutes (SD 1.7) of MVPA compared with 4.0 minutes (SD 2.2) for boys. Only 6% of children met the recess MVPA recommendation. The odds of girls (odds ratio 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.04–0.25) meeting the recommendation was lower (P < .001) compared with boys. No statistically significant differences were observed in meeting the recommendation for the other risk factors. Conclusion: Levels of MVPA during school recess are very low in Scottish children, and interventions aimed at increasing MVPA during recess are needed.

Open access

Acute and Long-Term Changes in Blood-Borne Biomarkers in Response to Dynamic Standing in Nonambulant Children With Cerebral Palsy

Tibor V. Varga, Åsa Andersson, Katarina Lauruschkus, and Åsa B. Tornberg

Purpose: To investigate acute and long-term changes in hormonal and inflammatory biomarkers in nonambulant children with cerebral palsy in response to dynamic standing exercise. Methods: Fourteen children with severe cerebral palsy were recruited. Anthropometrics and body composition measures were obtained. Physical activity levels before the study were assessed using hip-worn accelerometry. All children underwent a 30-minute dynamic standing exercise using the Innowalk standing aid. Respiratory data during exercise were collected using indirect calorimetry. Blood samples were collected before and after exercise. Blood samples were also obtained after two 16-week exercise protocols, in a resting state. Hormonal and inflammatory metabolites were measured from blood serum/plasma, and acute and long-term changes in biomarker levels were assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: Of the 14 children at baseline, all had slightly/moderately/severely elevated C-reactive protein and cortisol levels. C-reactive protein levels were decreased following a 30-minute bout of dynamic standing (before exercise: 53 mg/L [interquartile range: 40–201]; after exercise: 39 mg/L [interquartile range: 20–107]; P = .04). Conclusions: We show that several hormonal and inflammatory biomarkers are dysregulated in children with cerebral palsy. Our preliminary results from a small, but deep-phenotyped prospective cohort indicate acute and long-term alterations of several biomarkers in response to exercise.

Free access

Editor’s Notes

Craig A. Williams

Open access

Feasibility and Utility of a Fitbit Tracker Among Ambulatory Children and Youth With Disabilities

Emily Bremer, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Brianna Tsui, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Sarah A. Moore, Krista L. Best, and Christine Voss

Purpose: To examine the feasibility and utility of the Fitbit Charge HR to estimate physical activity among ambulatory children and youth with disabilities. Method: Participants (4–17 y old) with disabilities were recruited and asked to wear a Fitbit for 28 days. Feasibility was assessed as the number of participants who adhered to the 28-day protocol. Heat maps were generated to visually examine variability in step count by age, gender, and disability group. Between-group differences for wear time and step counts by age, gender, and disability type were assessed by independent sample t tests for gender and disability group, and a 1-way analysis of variance for age group. Results: Participants (N = 157; median age = 10 y; 71% boys; 71% nonphysical disabilities) averaged 21 valid days of wear time. Wear time was higher in girls than boys (mean difference = 18.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8 to 29.1), and in preadolescents (mean difference = 27.6; 95% CI, 15.5 to 39.7) and adolescents (mean difference = −21.2; 95% CI, −33.6 to −8.7) than children. More daily steps were taken by boys than girls (mean difference = −1040; 95% CI, −1465 to −615) and individuals with a nonphysical disability than a physical disability (mean difference = −1120; 95% CI, −1474 to −765). The heat maps showed peaks in physical activity on weekdays before school, at recess, lunchtime, and after school. Conclusion: The Fitbit is a feasible tool for monitoring physical activity among ambulatory children and youth with disabilities and may be useful for population-level surveillance and intervention.

Free access

Reporting of Adverse Events in Muscle Strengthening Interventions in Youth: A Systematic Review

Diane E. Mack, Daniel Anzovino, Malcolm Sanderson, Raffy Dotan, and Bareket Falk

Clear definition, identification, and reporting of adverse event (AE) monitoring during training interventions are essential for decision making regarding the safety of training and testing in youths. Purpose: To document the extent to which AEs, resulting from intervention studies targeting muscle strengthening training (MST) in youth, are reported by researchers. Methods: Electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) were searched for English peer-reviewed articles published before April 2018. Inclusion criteria were: (1) average age <16 years, (2) use of MST, (3) statement(s) linked to the presence/absence of AEs, and (4) randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs. Risk of reporting bias for AEs followed recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: One hundred and ninety-one full-text articles were screened. One hundred and thirty met all MST criteria, out of which only 44 (33.8%; n = 1278, age = 12.1 [1.1] y) included a statement as to the presence/absence of adverse events. The 86 other studies (66.2%) included no such statement. Of the reporting 44 studies, 18 (40.1%) indicated one or more adverse events. Of the 93 reported adverse events, 55 (59.1%) were linked to training or testing. Conclusions: Most MST studies in youth do not report presence/absence of adverse events, and when reported, adverse events are not well defined.