Response to “Comment on: Differences in Neurocognitive Functions Between Healthy Controls and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Male Athletes Who Passed or Failed Return to Sport Criteria: A Preliminary Study”
Razieh Mofateh, Maryam Kiani Haft Lang, Neda Orakifar, and Shahin Goharpey
Comment on: “Differences in Neurocognitive Functions Between Healthy Controls and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Male Athletes Who Passed or Failed Return to Sport Criteria: A Preliminary Study”
Jérôme Murgier, Guillaume Zunzarren, and Bertrand Garet
Transient Ischemic Attack in a 22-Year-Old NCAA Division I Baseball Athlete: A Case Study
Daisy Luera, Ronald L. Snarr, Sara Posson, Ioannis Liras, George Liras, and Erica M. Filep
Context: A healthy, 22-year-old, male NCAA Division I baseball shortstop was experiencing confusion, chest pain, and tightness during an off-season intersquad scrimmage. The patient did not have any significant medical history or mechanism of head injury. After initial evaluation from the athletic trainer, the patient’s cognitive status began to quickly decline. The emergency action plan was put in place rapidly and referred the patient to the local emergency clinic. Case Presentation: Upon arrival at the emergency department, an electrocardiogram was performed to rule out myocardial infarction or stroke. The first electrocardiogram results returned negative for any cardiac pathology, but a stroke alert was called. The patient was then transported to a level II trauma center due to continual cognitive decline. The patient was diagnosed with transient ischemic attack (TIA) secondary to an undiagnosed patent foramen ovale (PFO) that would later be diagnosed with further evaluation 2 months after the initial TIA incident. After multiple diagnostic and laboratory tests, the PFO went undetected until a 2D echocardiogram was performed and evaluated by a cardiologist. Management and Outcomes: After the confirmation of the congenital defect, surgical intervention was performed to correct the PFO using catheterization. Despite multiple preparticipation examinations, electrocardiograms, and examination of past family history, the PFO went undetected until the patient experienced symptoms of TIA. The discovery of PFO in this 22-year-old athletic individual is unusual because traditional screening techniques (electrocardiogram and preparticipation examinations) failed to detect the congenital defect. Conclusions: Due to the emergent and timely actions of the athletic trainer, the patient has made a full recovery and is able to compete fully in athletic events. This case study amplifies the need for athletic trainers at all sporting events, updated and reviewed emergency action plans, rapid recognition of TIA in athletic individuals, and return-to-play protocol for an athletic individual after TIA.
Pulsed Red and Blue Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Thigh Contusions and Soft Tissue Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Aaron Wells, Justin Rigby, Chris Castel, and Dawn Castel
Context: Contusion and soft tissue injuries are common in sports. Photobiomodultion, light and laser therapy, is an effective aid to increase healing rates and improve function after various injury mechanisms. However, it is unclear how well photobiomodulation improves function after a contusion soft tissue injury. This study aimed to determine the effects of a pulsed red and blue photobiomodulation light patch on muscle function following a human thigh contusion injury. Design: Single-blinded randomized control trial design. Methods: We enrolled 46 healthy participants. Participants completed 5 visits on consecutive days. On the first visit, participants completed a baseline isokinetic quadriceps strength testing protocol at 60°/s and 180°/s. On the second visit, participants were struck in the rectus femoris of the anterior thigh with a tennis ball from a serving machine. Immediately following, participants were treated for 30 minutes with an active or placebo photobiomodulation patch (CareWear light patch system, CareWear Corp). Following the treatment, participants completed the same isokinetic quadriceps strength testing protocol. Participants completed the treatment and isokinetic quadriceps strength test during the following daily visits. We normalized the data by calculating the percent change from baseline. We used a mixed model analysis of covariance, with sex as a covariate, to determine the difference between treatment groups throughout the acute recovery process. Results: We found the active photobiomodulation treatment significantly increased over the placebo group, quadriceps peak torque during the 180°/s test (P = .030), and average power during both the 60°/s (P = .041) and 180°/s (P ≤ .001) assessments. The mean peak torque and average power of 180°/s, at day 4, exceeded the baseline levels by 8.9% and 16.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The red and blue photobiomodulation light patch improved muscle strength and power during the acute healing phase of a human thigh contusion injury model.
The Effect of Staged Versus Usual Care Physiotherapy on Knee Function Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Kestrel McNeill, Hana Marmura, Melanie Werstine, Greg Alcock, Trevor Birmingham, Kevin Willits, Alan Getgood, Marie-Eve LeBel, Robert Litchfield, Dianne Bryant, and J. Robert Giffin
Context: The long duration and high cost of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) rehabilitation can pose barriers to completing rehabilitation, the latter stages of which progress to demanding sport-specific exercises critical for a safe return to sport. A staged approach shifting in-person physiotherapy sessions to later months of recovery may ensure patients undergo the sport-specific portion of ACLR rehabilitation. Design/Objective: To compare postoperative outcomes of knee function in patients participating in a staged ACLR physiotherapy program to patients participating in usual care physiotherapy through a randomized controlled trial. Methods: One hundred sixty-two patients were randomized to participate in staged (n = 80) or usual care physiotherapy (n = 82) following ACLR and assessed preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. The staged group completed the ACLR rehabilitation protocol at home for the first 3 months, followed by usual care in-person sessions. The usual care group completed in-person sessions for their entire rehabilitation. Outcome measures included the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Questionnaire, pain, range of motion, strength, and hop testing. Results: There were no statistically significant between-group differences in measures of knee function at 6 months postoperative. Patients in the usual care group reported significantly higher International Knee Documentation Committee scores at 3 months postoperative (mean difference = 5.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 10.4; P = .01). Conclusion: A staged approach to ACLR rehabilitation does not appear to impede knee function at 6 months postoperative but may result in worse patient reported outcomes at early follow-ups.
Translation and Validation of the Arabic Version of the Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire
Ahmed S. Alhowimel, Aqeel M. Alenazi, Mohammed M. Alshehri, Bader A. Alqahtani, Abdulaziz Aljaman, Hosam Alzahrani, Faris Alodaibi, and Simon M. Rice
Context: The international sports community is becoming more proactive in clinical mental health practice and research. An athlete-specific psychological distress screening tool can identify potential mental health illness. Design: The Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ) is a simple screening tool for detecting early signs of athlete-specific strain and related mental health concerns. Methods: We evaluated the internal consistency and reliability of the translated and culturally adjusted Arabic version of the APSQ (APSQ-Ar) with Arabic-speaking elite athletes. The final translation underwent standard forward and backward translation, an inspection by a team of experts, and then preliminary testing. The APSQ-Ar was cross-culturally validated and then assessed for internal consistency and reliability among (n = 98) Arabic-speaking athletes. Results: There were no problems with the patients’ understanding or interpretation of the items on the APSQ-Ar translation. The intraclass correlation value was .93 (95% confidence interval, .89–.95), and the mean difference was 2.4 with a minimal detectable change of 5.12, demonstrating strong test–retest reliability. Moreover, Cronbach alpha showed excellent internal consistency (.76). Conclusions: The APSQ-Ar was demonstrated to be good, reliable, and internally consistent. With APSQ-Ar, sports medicine professionals in Arabic-speaking countries will be able to identify psychological distress and symptoms in athletes and, as a result, provide them with mental health support.
Effectiveness of 448-kHz Capacitive Resistive Monopolar Radiofrequency Therapy After Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage to Restore Muscle Strength and Contractile Parameters
Boštjan Šimunič, Monika Doles, Robi Kelc, and Andrej Švent
Context: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is prevalent especially in sports and rehabilitation. It causes loss in skeletal muscle function and soreness. As there are no firm preventive strategies, we aimed to evaluate the preventive efficacy of nonthermal 448-kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency (CRMRF) therapy after eccentric bouts of EIMD response in knee flexors. Design: Twenty-nine healthy males (age: 25.2 [4.6] y) were randomized in control group (CG; n = 15) and experimental group (EG; n = 14) where EG followed 5 daily 448-kHz CRMRF therapies. All assessments were performed at baseline and post EIMD (EIMD + 1, EIMD + 2, EIMD + 5, and EIMD + 9 d). We measured tensiomyography of biceps femoris and semitendinosus to calculate contraction time, the maximal displacement and the radial velocity of contraction, unilateral isometric knee flexors maximal voluntary contraction torque, and rate of torque development in first 100 milliseconds. Results: Maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development in first 100 milliseconds decreased more in CG than in EG and recovered only in EG. Biceps femoris contraction time increased only in CG (without recovery), whereas in semitendinosus contraction time increased in EG (only at EIMD + 1) and in CG (without recovery). In both muscles, tensiomyographic maximal displacement decreased in EG (in EIMD + 1 and EIMD + 2) and in CG (without recovery). Furthermore, in both muscles, radial velocity of contraction decreased in EG (from EIMD + 1 until EIMD + 5) and in CG (without recovery). Conclusion: The study shows beneficial effect of CRMRF therapy after inducing EIMD in skeletal muscle strength and contractile parameters in knee flexors.
Rolling the Field Forward: The Power of Numbers in Ankle Injury Research
Christopher J. Burcal
Does Accelerated Rehabilitation Provide Better Outcomes Than Restricted Rehabilitation in Postarthroscopic Repair of Meniscal Injury?
Mingke You, Lingcheng Wang, Ruipeng Huang, Kaibo Zhang, Yunhe Mao, Gang Chen, and Jian Li
Context: Meniscal injury is a common pathology, and the postoperative rehabilitation program is essential to patients after surgery. However, the optimal rehabilitation plan after meniscus suture is still controversial. Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes between accelerated rehabilitation and restricted programs in patients with meniscus suture (with or without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, ACLR). Evidence Acquisition: Four databases, including PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, were searched up to November 2021. This study only included studies comparing the clinical outcomes between accelerated (immediate range of motion and weight-bearing) and restricted rehabilitation (immobilization and progressive weight-bearing) for meniscus suture. All selected studies were divided into 2 subgroups: isolated meniscus suture or combined with ACLR. The Lysholm score, Tegner score, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were evaluated in simple meniscus sutures no less than 1 year. Failure rate was evaluated in both groups, and the tunnel enlargement was additionally evaluated in patients who underwent ACLR. Evidence Synthesis: Eleven studies with 612 patients were eligible for analysis. The accelerated group included 4 studies with 330 participants, while the restricted group included 7 studies with 282 participants. For the patients after isolated meniscus suture, the accelerated group achieved higher Lysholm scores (mean difference = −4.66; 95% confidence interval, −8.6 to −0.73; P = .02; I 2 = 88%) than the restricted group. For the patients after meniscus suture with ACLR, patients undergoing accelerated rehabilitation were associated with a significantly larger tibial tunnel enlargement in the anterior–posterior view (mean difference = −7.08; 95% confidence interval, −10.92 to −3.24; P = .0003; I 2 = 0%) and lateral view (mean difference = −10.33; 95% confidence interval, −16.9 to −3.75; P = .002; I 2 = 17%). Conclusion: This meta-analysis evaluated the effects of postoperative rehabilitation in either accelerated or restricted programs in patients with meniscus lesions after repair. A significant higher mean self-reported function was discovered at final follow-ups in the accelerated group. However, a significant increase in tibial tunnel enlargement was also found in accelerated group.