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Ding Ding, Pedro C. Hallal, Loretta DiPietro, and Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

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Leonardo Alex Volpato, Julio Cesar Costa, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Catiana Leila Possamai Romanzini, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini

Background: Recent statistical approaches have allowed consideration of the integrated relationships between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) with different health outcomes. The present paper aimed to systematically review the literature and synthesize evidence about associations between hypothetical reallocations from SB to different PA intensities and cardiovascular risk factors in youth. Methods: A systematic search of 8 databases was performed. Observational studies with a population of children and/or adolescents and based on statistical analysis that investigated the associations between time reallocations from SB to PA and cardiovascular risk factors were included. Results: Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Level of evidence (derived from cross-sectional studies) indicated that the reallocation from SB to moderate to vigorous PA was beneficially associated with adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in youth. Reallocation from SB to light PA was not associated with the analyzed outcomes. Associations derived from longitudinal studies were mostly inconclusive. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors could be improved by increasing moderate to vigorous PA at the expense of time spent in SB in pediatric populations. Prospective studies or studies investigating the effects of reallocating sedentary bouts to PA are needed.

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J.D. DeFreese, Daniel J. Madigan, and Henrik Gustafsson

Open access

Kerstin Hagberg, Roland Zügner, Peter Thomsen, and Roy Tranberg

Introduction: Mobility restriction following limb loss might lead to a sedentary lifestyle, impacting health. Daily activity monitoring of amputees has focused on prosthetic steps, neglecting overall activity. Purpose: To assess daily activity in individuals with an established amputation and to explore the amount of activity recorded from the prosthesis as compared to the overall activity. Methods: Individuals with a unilateral transfemoral amputation or knee disarticulation who had used a prosthesis in daily life for >1 year and could walk 100 m (unsupported or single aided) were recruited. Descriptive information and prosthetic mobility were collected. Two activPAL™ accelerometers were attached to the nonamputated thigh and the prosthesis, respectively. The mean daily activity over 7 days was compared between the nonamputated limb and the prosthesis. Results: Thirty-nine participants (22 men/17 women; mean age 54 [14.5] years) with amputation mainly due to trauma (59%) or tumor (28%) were included. Overall, participants took 6,125 steps and spent 10.2 hr sedentary, 5.0 hr upright, and 8.7 hr laying per day. Compared to recordings from the nonamputated limb, 85% of sit-to-stand transitions (32/38), 73% of steps (4,449/6,125), and 68% of walking time (1.0/1.5 hr) were recorded from the prosthesis. Recordings seemed to be less adequate for incidental prosthetic steps than for walks. Conclusions: Sedentary behavior accounted for most of the day demonstrating the importance to encourage physical activity among established prosthetic users. The prosthesis is used for daily activity to a great extent. However, noted pitfalls in the recordings call for further refinement of the measurements.

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Sarah Kozey Keadle, Julian Martinez, Scott J. Strath, John Sirard, Dinesh John, Stephen Intille, Diego Arguello, Marcos Amalbert-Birriel, Rachel Barnett, Binod Thapa-Chhetry, Melanna Cox, John Chase, Erin Dooley, Rob Marcotte, Alexander Tolas, and John W. Staudemayer

Direct observation (DO) is a widely accepted ground-truth measure, but the field lacks standard operational definitions. Research groups develop project-specific annotation platforms, limiting the utility of DO if labels are not consistent. Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate within- and between-site agreement for DO taxonomies (e.g., activity intensity category) across four independent research groups who have used video-recorded DO. Methods : Each site contributed video files (508 min) and had two trained research assistants annotate the shared video files according to their existing annotation protocols. The authors calculated (a) within-site agreement for the two coders at the same site expressed as intraclass correlation and (b) between-site agreement, the proportion of seconds that agree between any two coders regardless of site. Results: Within-site agreement at all sites was good–excellent for both activity intensity categories (intraclass correlation range: .82–.9) and posture/whole-body movement (intraclass correlation range: .77–.98). Between-site agreement for intensity categories was 94.6% for sedentary, 80.9% for light, and 82.8% for moderate–vigorous. Three of the four sites had common labels for eight posture/whole-body movements and had within-site agreements of 94.5% and between-site agreements of 86.1%. Conclusions: Distinct research groups can annotate key features of physical behavior with good-to-excellent interrater reliability. Operational definitions are provided for core metrics for researchers to consider in future studies to facilitate between-study comparisons and data pooling, enabling the deployment of deep learning approaches to wearable device algorithm calibration.

Free access

Haylie L. Miller

Social media offers an exciting opportunity for the field of motor development and behavior research. With platforms such as Twitter offering access to historical data from users’ public bios and posts, there is untapped potential to examine community perspectives on the role of motor differences in identity and lived experience. Analysis of online discourse offers advantages over traditional qualitative methods like structured interviews or focus groups, including a less-contrived setting, global geographic and cultural representation, and ease of sampling. The aim of this special section is to present a pipeline for harvesting and analysis of Twitter data related to users’ identities and discourse characteristics, specifically situated in the context of motor development and behavior. This pipeline is demonstrated in two independent studies, one on autistic users and one on developmental coordination disorder (DCD)/dyspraxic users. These studies demonstrate the utility of Twitter data for research on neurodivergent and disabled people’s perspectives on their motor differences, and whether they are expressed as part of their identity. Implications of results are discussed for each study, as well as in the larger context of future research using a variety of approaches to analysis of social media data, including those from predominantly image- and video-based platforms.

Free access

Kerime Bademli, Neslihan Lök, and Sefa Lök

Background: The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a 12-week physical activity intervention for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Method: Family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia were recruited and randomized into either a physical activity group (n = 31) or a control group (n = 31). The 12-week “Physical Activity Program” consisted of 10 minutes of warm-up activities as the initial segment, 20 minutes of rhythmic exercises as the activity segment, 10 minutes of cool-down exercises as the final segment, and 40 minutes of free walking. The physical activity program was designed to accommodate the ergonomics and physiological structure of the caregiver. The program consisted of 12 sessions. The Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to the physical activity and control groups before the program’s implementation. Results: A total of 62 caregivers were randomized to the intervention (n = 31) or control group (n = 31). Postintervention measurement was completed by 61 caregivers, and all the caregivers completed the intervention. Mean scores of Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale score and Beck Depression Inventory score in the physical activity group of caregivers at postintervention, significantly reduced at <.05 level than their mean baseline scores. Conclusions: Engagement in a 12-week physical activity intervention can improve the perceived burden of caregiving and symptoms of depression. Future research should examine with larger sample groups, carry out interventions, and apply the physical activity intervention by targeting caregivers, along with different interventions.

Free access

Sudeep Mitra, Mousumi Mitra, Purna Nandi, Madhumita Pandey, Mousumi Chakrabarty, Mantu Saha, and Dilip Kumar Nandi

Background: The global COVID-19 lockdown restricted daily routines due to the psychological fear of infection, which imposed an unknown universal threat on female college students, affecting physiological health and well-being. However, scant information concerning the efficacy of yogic practice on female college students during the stressful COVID-19 pandemic situation is available. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial (n = 74, age = 21.65 [4.05] y), a study was conducted with a well-conceptualized yogic module for 5 days/week for 3 months (40 min daily in the morning) among yogic volunteers. Pre–post analysis of anthropometric, physiological, and biochemical indices in pandemic-stressed female college students was done for the control and yoga groups. Results: After 3 months of yogic practice, significant reduction (P < .05) in heart rate (d = 0.64, meandiff = 5.43), systolic blood pressure (d = 0.59, meandiff = 5.32), cortisol (d = 0.59, meandiff = 6.354), and triglycerides (P < .01, d = 0.45, meandiff = 13.95) was observed. After yogic follow-up significant improvement (P < .01) in high-frequency (d = 0.56, meandiff = −7.3), total power (d = 0.46, meandiff = −1150) and time domain parameters of heart rate variability led to ameliorate the stress index. Superoxide dismutase (P < .01, d = 0.78, meandiff = 0.69), catalase (P < .05, d = 0.48, meandiff = −7.37), glutathione (P < .001, d = 0.83, meandiff = −4.15), high-density lipoprotein (P < .05, d = 0.48, meandiff = −11.07), and dopamine (P < .001, d = 0.97, meandiff = −135.4) values along with inflammatory markers (P < .001) significantly improved among yogic volunteers after regular practice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a 3-month well-conceptualized yogic intervention during COVID-19 may be considered as a prophylactic tool to improve female college students’ universal psychophysiological health by ameliorating autonomic functions, cardiometabolic risk factors, and immune metabolisms in an economical and environment-friendly manner.

Free access

Priscila M. Tamplain, Nicholas E. Fears, Promise Robinson, Riya Chatterjee, Gavin Lichtenberg, and Haylie L. Miller

Little is known about adults’ experiences with developmental coordination disorder (DCD; sometimes also referred to as dyspraxia). Social media is an accessible opportunity for those who identify as dyspraxic or as having DCD to provide valuable insight into the lifespan impact of this condition on functional ability, participation, compensatory strategies, and well-being. We used the Twitter research application programming interface to identify users who self-identified with the keywords Developmental Coordination Disorder, #DCD, #dyspraxic (or # dyspraxia), or clumsy in their profile descriptions between October 10 and November 10, 2021. During that period, 818 tweets were harvested with 524 remaining after removing duplicates (e.g., multiple promotions of a single resource) and unrelated tweets. They were labeled according to motor differences (general motor, coordination, fine motor skills, oral motor skills, manual dexterity, driving, gross motor skills, movement pain and fatigue, posture and balance, and lower extremity); functional impact (advocacy/awareness, support for others, resources, information, and education, intervention, accommodation, and work); or other related topics (stimming and sensory, co-occurrence and diagnostic overlap, cognitive, social and communication speech, and emotional and mental health). The DCD/dyspraxic community has clearly identified a lifelong impact of motor differences across multiple contexts. DCD/dyspraxic Twitter users shared compensatory strategies that could help others, and offered insight into their experience of co-occurring conditions and cognitive/emotional sequelae of motor challenges.

Free access

Kazi Rumana Ahmed, Sharon Horwood, and Asaduzzaman Khan

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent physical activity intervention on mental health of adolescents. Methods: A clustered, randomized, controlled trial was employed in 8 high schools in Dhaka, Bangladesh, which were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group; 40 students in grades 8 and 9 from each school took part in the trial (n = 160/group). Students in the intervention schools participated in a 12-week physical activity intervention with multiple components (eg, supervised circuits, lunchtime sports, health education, infographics), while control schools received no intervention. Participants completed baseline and postintervention surveys measuring depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and life satisfaction (Cantril Ladder), along with other sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to evaluate the intervention effects. Results: Depressive symptoms in the intervention group decreased at postintervention, but remained stable in the control group. There was an increase in life satisfaction in the intervention group and a decrease in the control group. Multivariable modeling showed that students in the intervention group had a significantly lower level of depressive symptoms (β = −4.60; 95% confidence interval, −5.76 to −3.46) and higher level of life satisfaction (β = 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 2.10) compared with their counterparts in the control group. Sensitivity analyses supported the positive effects of the intervention. Conclusions: Our school-based, multicomponent physical activity intervention is effective in improving mental health indicators in adolescents. Future trials should be ramped up to include schools in rural and regional settings, using robust measures  of mental well-being.