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Bas Van Hooren, Guy Plasqui, and Romuald Lepers

Purpose: This study assessed the cardiorespiratory capacity, anaerobic speed reserve, and anthropometric and spatiotemporal variables of a 75-year-old world-class middle-distance runner who previously obtained several European and world records in the age categories of 60–70 years, achieved 13 European titles and 15 world champion titles, and also holds several European records for the 75-year-old category. Methods: Heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, ventilation, step frequency, contact time, and velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured during treadmill running. Maximal sprinting speed was assessed during track sprinting and used to compute anaerobic speed reserve. Body fat percentage was assessed using air displacement plethysmography. Results: Body fat percentage was 8.6%, VO2max was 50.5 mL·kg−1·min−1, maximal ventilation was 141 L·min−1, maximum heart rate was 164 beats·min−1, maximum respiratory exchange ratio was 1.18, and velocity at VO2max was 16.7 km·h−1. The average stride frequency and contact time during the last 30 seconds of the 4-minute run at 10 km·h−1 were 171 steps·min−1 and 241 ms and 187 steps·min−1 and 190 ms in the last 40 seconds at 17 km·h−1, respectively. The anaerobic speed reserve was 11.4 km·h−1, corresponding to an anaerobic speed reserve ratio of 1.68. Conclusion: This 75-year-old runner has an exceptionally high VO2max and anaerobic speed reserve ratio. In addition, his resilience to injuries, possibly due to a relatively high volume of easy runs, enabled him to sustain regular training since his 50s and achieve international performance in his age group.

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Javier T. Gonzalez and Andy J. King

Isotopic tracers can reveal insights into the temporal nature of metabolism and track the fate of ingested substrates. A common use of tracers is to assess aspects of human carbohydrate metabolism during exercise under various established models. The dilution model is used alongside intravenous infusion of tracers to assess carbohydrate appearance and disappearance rates in the circulation, which can be further delineated into exogenous and endogenous sources. The incorporation model can be used to estimate exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. Combining methods can provide insight into key factors regulating health and performance, such as muscle and liver glycogen utilization, and the underlying regulation of blood glucose homeostasis before, during, and after exercise. Obtaining accurate, quantifiable data from tracers, however, requires careful consideration of key methodological principles. These include appropriate standardization of pretrial diet, specific tracer choice, whether a background trial is necessary to correct expired breath CO2 enrichments, and if so, what the appropriate background trial should consist of. Researchers must also consider the intensity and pattern of exercise, and the type, amount, and frequency of feeding (if any). The rationale for these considerations is discussed, along with an experimental design checklist and equation list which aims to assist researchers in performing high-quality research on carbohydrate metabolism during exercise using isotopic tracer methods.

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Daniel J. Astridge, Peter Peeling, Paul S.R. Goods, Olivier Girard, Jamie Hewlett, Anthony J. Rice, and Martyn J. Binnie

Background: World Rowing’s decision to support the proposed change from a 2000-m to a 1500-m regatta course at the 2028 Olympic Games in Los Angeles is anticipated to have important implications for athlete preparation and race execution during the 2024–2028 quadrennium. Purpose: This commentary aims to provide insight into the expected implications of the reduction in course length heading into the 2028 Games, focusing on the training and monitoring of high-performance rowers, as well as tactical, technical, and pacing considerations for performance. The reduction in event duration (estimated to be ∼90–120 s across all event classes) will lead to an expected ∼5% to 15% increase in relative contribution of anaerobic metabolism. Consequently, adjustment in training periodization priorities toward higher-intensity interventions may be required, especially in the period immediately prior to the games. The critical-power and anaerobic-power-reserve concepts may become more useful tools for structuring exercise programs, evaluating training outcomes, and determining event suitability through individual physiological profiling. Additionally, the adoption of a more constant (flat) pacing strategy, rather than the commonly used reverse J-shaped approach, might be considered for racing over this new distance. Finally, technical aspects, such as stroke rate and gearing, may require adjustment for optimal performance; however, research is clearly required to explore such effects. Conclusions: Our intention is to stimulate discussion and debate, with the provision of practical recommendations that aim to optimize rowers’ preparation for and performance at the 2028 Olympic Games.

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Zsófia Pálya, Bálint Petró, and Rita M. Kiss

Background: Balancing performance can be affected by regular and high-level athletic training, which has not been fully explored in synchronized ice skaters. This study aimed to analyze the dynamic balancing performance by assessing the principal and compensatory movements performed during the sudden provocation tests and evaluating the parameters that characterize the platform’s motion. Method: Twelve young female synchronized ice skaters and 12 female age-matched controls participated. Sudden provocation tests were completed three times in bipedal stance and in single-leg stances, and sport-specific fatigue session was inserted between the repetitions. Results: Significantly more time was necessary to recover balance for both groups after the fatiguing sessions (p < .05). Interestingly, skaters performed less effectively in the simplest condition (bipedal stance) than the control group (p < .05). The principal component analysis showed that the first principal movement was the same for both groups. The skater group used the upper body and arms more often to compensate, while the control group’s recovery strategy consisted mainly of abduction of the elevated leg. The damping ratio and the relative variance of the first principal movement showed a negative correlation (p < .05), suggesting that those with superior balancing effectiveness recruited more compensatory movements.

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Maarten A. Immink

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Kwok Ng, Sean Healy, Wesley O’Brien, Lauren Rodriguez, Marie Murphy, and Angela Carlin

For the first time, data on children and adolescents with disabilities in Ireland are reported based on the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Para Report Card methodology. The most recent data from the last 10 years were used in the grading process (A+ to F), and indicators with insufficient data were graded as incomplete. Of the 10 indicators from the Global Matrix Para Report Cards, grades were assigned to Overall Physical Activity (F), Organized Sport (D), Active Transport (D−), Sedentary Behaviors (D−), Family & Peers (C), School (C−), Community & Environment (B−), and Government (B). Irish disability sport organizations were invited to assess the research-led audit and provided commentary around the final grading. The contextual discussion of the grades is presented through the lens of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats with the purpose being to provide direction for the reduction of physical activity disparities among children with disabilities.

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Stephen Hunter, John C. Spence, Scott T. Leatherdale, and Valerie Carson

Background: Neighborhoods are one setting to promote children’s physical activity. This study examined associations between neighborhood features and children’s physical activity and whether season or socioeconomic status modified these associations. Methods: Parents (n = 641) of children aged 6–10 years completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated. Walkability was objectively measured at 400, 800, and 1200 m around the centroid of participants’ postal codes. Children’s physical activity was measured via StepsCount pedometers and parental report. Regression analyses were performed with interaction terms for season and socioeconomic status. Multiple imputation was used primarily to triangulate the results for children with missing steps data (n = 192). Results: Higher perceived residential density and traffic hazards were significantly associated with lower squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity and steps per day, respectively. Higher perceived aesthetics was associated with higher squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity. Socioeconomic status modified 2 associations though they were not significant upon stratification. During winter months, better perceived infrastructure and safety for walking was associated with higher squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity. No other significant associations emerged. Conclusion: Residential density, traffic hazards, and aesthetics are important for children’s physical activity. Few associations were modified by socioeconomic status or season. The need for objective and subjective measures of the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity is apparent.

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Ransimala Nayakarathna, Nimesh B. Patel, Cheryl Currie, Guy Faulkner, Negin A. Riazi, Mark S. Tremblay, François Trudeau, and Richard Larouche

Background: Previous research shows that children from ethnic minority groups spend less time outdoors. Using data collected in 3 regions of Canada, we investigated the correlates of outdoor time among schoolchildren who spoke a nonofficial language at home. Methods: A total of 1699 children were recruited from 37 schools stratified by area-level socioeconomic status and type of urbanization. Among these, 478 spoke a nonofficial language at home. Children’s outdoor time and data on potential correlates were collected via questionnaires. Gender-stratified linear multiple regression models examined the correlates of outdoor time while controlling for age and sampling variables. Results: In boys, higher independent mobility, higher outdoor air temperature, mobile phone ownership, having older parents, and parents who biked to work were associated with more outdoor time. Boys living in suburban (vs urban) areas spent less time outdoors. The association between independent mobility and outdoor time became weaker with increasing age for boys. In girls, lower parental education and greater parental concerns about neighborhood safety and social cohesion were associated with less outdoor time. Conclusions: Correlates of outdoor time differ by gender and span the social ecological model underscoring the need for gender-sensitized interventions targeted at individual, family, social, and physical environmental correlates to increase outdoor time.

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Janelle Joseph, Bahar Tajrobehkar, Gabriela Estrada, and Zeana Hamdonah

Background: This scoping literature review examines: What literature exists about the sport and physical activity experiences of racialized cis and trans women, adolescents, and girls in Canada? Methods: English language peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and gray literature published January 1, 2000, up to May 31, 2020, were examined. The databases used were SPORTDiscus via EBSCO, Sociological Abstracts, Sport Medicine and Education Index, and Google Scholar. The 42 studies and 15 gray literatures found included 1430 participants explicitly specified as racialized women/girl participants. Results: There was a paucity of literature on the topic overall with none (n = 0) focused on experiences of racialized trans women. The limited research notes some successful programs that address racialized women’s needs. However, the research also shows widespread experiences of discrimination against women based on racial group and language and limited access to culturally relevant or welcoming sporting opportunities, such as women-only programs and spaces. Conclusions: Much more research should be done to disaggregate “immigrants” into specific racial and ethnic groups, attend to intersectional identities and barriers, understand a wide range of involvement (eg, including coaching, high performance sport, recreation, exercise, university sport, mentorship programs), document racism and White privilege, and describe the joys of participation in sport for racialized women.