Receiving a lifetime award allows one to pause and reflect on one’s research journey. In the spirit of Earle Zeigler himself, I reflect on: “What I have learned . . . ” on my research journey, and more specifically on how I got there. My research has always focused on the interaction between sport, economics, and society and evolved: “From socio-economic impacts on sport participation to socio-economic outcomes of sport events.” To cover 40 years of research, I am highlighting how: (a) “triggers,” (b) “influencers,” and (c) “lessons learned” intermingled to push my research agenda forward. This reflection proved to be a very gratifying exercise. I can highly recommend it to all researchers. Perhaps, this can become a stepping stone to be promoted to the rank of Prof. Emeritus or Emerita. Either way, sharing our experiences may trigger, inspire, and advance the learning of future generations of sport management scholars.
“What Have I Learned . . . ” and How Did I Get There? Reflection on a Research Journey
The Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Measures of Teamwork in Sport
Desmond McEwan, Eesha J. Shah, Kaitlin L. Crawford, Patricia C. Jackman, Matt D. Hoffmann, Ethan Cardinal, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, and Alex J. Benson
In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.
Erratum. Are Preference and Tolerance Measured With the PRETIE-Q (Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionaire) Relevant Constructs for Understanding Exercise Intensity in Physical Activity? A Scoping Review
Dynamic Lower Limb Alignment During Jumping in Preschool Children: Normative Profiles and Sex Differences
Steen Harsted, Lise Hestbæk, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen, and Henrik Hein Lauridsen
The natural development of static lower limb varus/valgus alignments during early childhood is well understood. However, our understanding of dynamic lower limb frontal plane alignments is limited, and we lack normative descriptions of this phenomenon for both boys and girls. This study investigated dynamic lower limb alignment during jump-landings in preschool children, focusing on associations with sex, age, and motor performance. Dynamic lower limb alignment was measured as the Knee-to-Ankle Separation Ratio (KASR) in 605 children aged 3–6 years using markerless motion capture. Based on KASR measurements, we categorized the children into three kinematic groups: Valgus, Intermediate, and Varus. Median KASR scores were 0.86 (0.80–0.96) overall, 0.89 (0.81–0.98) for boys, and 0.85 (0.78–0.92) for girls. Over 75% of the children exhibited some level of dynamic knee valgus during jump-landings (KASR < 1). However, roughly two-thirds of the children in the Valgus group were girls. Age-adjusted differences in motor performance were small and only statistically significant for jump height and length in girls. These findings suggest that dynamic knee valgus during jump-landings is a common occurrence in preschool children, especially among girls. The potential relationship between dynamic lower limb alignment and age and motor performance warrants further investigation.
Inequalities in Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Television Viewing According to Age Among a Brazilian Adult Population
Andrea Wendt, Adriana K.F. Machado, Bruna G.C. da Silva, Caroline S. Costa, Luiza I.C. Ricardo, and Shana Ginar da Silva
Background: The present study aims to estimate leisure-time physical activity and television (TV) viewing curves according to age stratified by sex, area of residence, and socioeconomic position. Methods: Using data from the Brazilian National Health Survey, we estimated the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and TV viewing according to continuous age. The estimates were calculated using fractional polynomials and stratified by sex, wealth, skin color, and area of residence. Results: The sample included 87,376 adults (aged 18 y or over). In general, leisure-time physical activity decreased according to age while TV viewing increased. Regarding behavior of curves according to stratifiers, for leisure-time physical activity the disadvantaged groups maintained a pattern of low physical activity across all age groups or presented the decrease earlier when compared to groups in social advantage. On the other hand, for TV viewing, women presented an increase in prevalence before men, and individuals living in the urban area and the wealthiest group were those with a higher increase according to age. Conclusions: Our findings may help researchers and policymakers further explore inequalities in physical activity across life in different settings, as well as develop sensitive cultural actions to support more vulnerable people to adopt public health recommendations.
“Post or Perish”? An Early Career Researcher’s Guide to Using Social Media
Emma S. Cowley, Kelly McNulty, Ciaran M. Fairman, and Lee Stoner
Social media usage has soared in the last decade, with the majority of adults having an account on at least one platform. Sites such as LinkedIn, X, and TikTok allow users to share content using different forms, for example, written or video, long form or short form. Social media can be used by researchers to forge collaborations, rapidly disseminate new research, and demonstrate societal impact. This opinion piece aims to highlight the value of social media, in particular for early career researchers, and offer suggestions on how early career researchers can strategically use social media to build a network and an online presence. We reflect on our own experiences of social media and include some of the reasons we have been deterred from it in the past, such as fear of making a mistake, being misunderstood, or painted as being an overconfident “know it all.” As the demonstration of impact and engagement becomes ever more important in grant applications and job security, social media competency is a powerful professional skill that will be important for all scientists.
Charting a Course: Navigating Rigor and Meaning in Global Health Research
Tiago Canelas, Motlatso Godongwana, Feyisayo A. Wayas, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Yves Wasnyo, and Louise Foley
In the rapidly evolving landscape of global health research, the tension between scientific rigor and contextual meaning presents a critical challenge. Drawing on our work with the Global Diet and Physical Activity Network, this commentary explores the complexities of conducting environmental audits for physical activity and diet in 4 rapidly urbanizing African cities: Yaoundé, Lagos, Cape Town, and Soweto. We illustrate the competing demands and tensions that researchers face in balancing rigor and meaning. We discuss the adaptation of internationally validated audit tools to local contexts and the importance of area-level deprivation in interpreting data. We also examine the feasibility of virtual assessment tools, emphasizing the value of local expertise. We argue for a balanced approach that marries research rigor with contextual meaning, advocating for transparency, humility, and meaningful community engagement.
Participant Bias in Community-Based Physical Activity Research: A Consistent Limitation?
Iris A. Lesser, Amanda Wurz, Corliss Bean, Nicole Culos-Reed, Scott A. Lear, and Mary Jung
Physical activity is a beneficial, yet complex, health behavior. To ensure more people experience the benefits of physical activity, we develop and test interventions to promote physical activity and its associated benefits. Nevertheless, we continue to see certain groups of people who choose not to, or are unable to, take part in research, resulting in “recruitment bias.” In fact, we (and others) are seemingly missing large segments of people and are doing little to promote physical activity research to equity-deserving populations. So, how can we better address recruitment bias in the physical activity research we conduct? Based on our experience, we have identified 5 broad, interrelated, and applicable strategies to enhance recruitment and engagement within physical activity interventions: (1) gain trust, (2) increase community support and participation, (3) consider alternative approaches and designs, (4) rethink recruitment strategies, and (5) incentivize participants. While we recognize there is still a long way to go, and there are broader community and societal issues underlying recruitment to research, we hope this commentary prompts researchers to consider what they can do to try to address the ever-present limitation of “recruitment bias” and support greater participation among equity-deserving groups.
Effect of Yoga or Physical Exercise on Muscle Function in Rural Indian Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Sonal Kasture, Anuradha Khadilkar, Raja Padidela, Ketan Gondhalekar, Radhika Patil, and Vaman Khadilkar
Background: Synergistic effects of yoga or physical exercise (PE) along with protein supplementation on children’s muscle function in rural India have not been studied. Hence, we aimed to study the effect of yoga and PE along with protein supplementation on muscle function in healthy 6- to 11-year-old rural Indian children post 6 months of intervention. Methods: A randomized controlled trial on 232 children, recruited into 3 groups, each receiving 1 protein-rich ladoo (148 kcal, 7 g protein/40 g ladoo–an Indian sweet snack) daily and performing (1) yoga (n = 78) for 30 minutes 5 times per week, (2) PE (n = 76) for 30 minutes 5 times per week, or (3) control group (n = 78) no additional exercise. Maximum power, maximum voluntary force (Fmax), and grip strength (GS) were measured. Data were analyzed using paired t tests and a 2-way mixed analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni adjustment. Results: GS, maximum power, and Fmax within yoga group increased significantly (P < .05) from baseline to endline. GS and Fmax increased significantly within PE group postintervention (P < .001). In controls, GS increased (P < .05) at endline. No significant effect of the intervention was observed on the change in maximum power (P > .05) postintervention. The 2 exercise groups showed significant increase in Fmax compared with the control group (P < .05). Similarly, increase in GS was significantly higher in both the exercise groups compared with the control group (P < .05). No significant difference was observed in change in muscle function between the 2 exercise groups (P > .05). Conclusions: Structured physical activity along with protein supplementation resulted in improved muscle function in children. Yoga and PE showed a comparable impact on muscle force.
Clustering of Multilevel Factors Among Children and Adolescents: Associations With Health-Related Physical Fitness
Shan Cai, Yunfei Liu, Jiajia Dang, Panliang Zhong, Di Shi, Ziyue Chen, Peijin Hu, Jun Ma, Yanhui Dong, Yi Song, and Hein Raat
Background: To identify the clustering characteristics of individual-, family-, and school-level factors, and examine their associations with health-related physical fitness. Methods: A total of 145,893 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9–18 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The 2-step cluster analysis was conducted to identify clusters among individual-, family-, and school-level factors. Physical fitness indicator was calculated through sex- and age-specific z scores of forced vital capacity, standing long jump, sit-and-reach flexibility, body muscle strength, endurance running, and body mass index. Results: Three, 3, and 5 clusters were automatically identified at individual, family, and school levels, respectively. Students with low physical fitness indicator were more likely to be in the “longest sedentary time and skipping breakfast” cluster (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.24), and “physical inactivity and insufficient protein consumption” cluster (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02–1.12) at individual level, the “single children and high parental education level” cluster (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10–1.21), and “no physical activity support and preference” cluster (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.25–1.36) at family level, and the “physical education occupied” cluster (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01–1.11), and “insufficient physical education frequency” cluster (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08–1.24) at school level. Girls were more vulnerable to individual- and school-level clusters, while boys were more susceptible to family clusters; the younger students were more sensitive to school clusters, and the older students were more susceptible to family clusters (P-interaction < .05). Conclusions: This study confirmed different clusters at multilevel factors and proved their associations with health-related physical fitness, thus providing new perspective for developing targeted interventions.