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Erratum. Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Open access

Myths and Methodologies: Standardisation in Human Physiology Research—Should We Control the Controllables?

Lucy H. Merrell, Oliver J. Perkin, Louise Bradshaw, Harrison D. Collier-Bain, Adam J. Collins, Sophie Davies, Rachel Eddy, James A. Hickman, Anna P. Nicholas, Daniel Rees, Bruno Spellanzon, Lewis J. James, Alannah K.A. McKay, Harry A. Smith, James E. Turner, Francoise Koumanov, Jennifer Maher, Dylan Thompson, Javier T. Gonzalez, and James A. Betts

The premise of research in human physiology is to explore a multifaceted system whilst identifying one or a few outcomes of interest. Therefore, the control of potentially confounding variables requires careful thought regarding the extent of control and complexity of standardisation. One common factor to control prior to testing is diet, as food and fluid provision may deviate from participants’ habitual diets, yet a self-report and replication method can be flawed by under-reporting. Researchers may also need to consider standardisation of physical activity, whether it be through familiarisation trials, wash-out periods, or guidance on levels of physical activity to be achieved before trials. In terms of pharmacological agents, the ethical implications of standardisation require researchers to carefully consider how medications, caffeine consumption and oral contraceptive prescriptions may affect the study. For research in females, it should be considered whether standardisation between- or within-participants in regards to menstrual cycle phase is most relevant. The timing of measurements relative to various other daily events is relevant to all physiological research and so it can be important to standardise when measurements are made. This review summarises the areas of standardisation which we hope will be considered useful to anyone involved in human physiology research, including when and how one can apply standardisation to various contexts.

Open access

“Now I Am Walking Toward Health”: A Qualitative Study About the Outcomes of Physical Activity Participation That Matter to Older Adults

Peter J. Young, Christine Wallsworth, Hitika Gosal, and Dawn C. Mackey

Background/Objectives: Randomized controlled trials that deliver physical activity interventions have demonstrated benefits for older adults across numerous health outcomes. However, too little attention has been directed to ensuring that such trials are measuring patient-relevant outcomes. To support outcome selection for future trials, the objective of this study was to understand what outcomes related to their physical activity participation older adults find important. Methods: We conducted 12 semistructured interviews with adults aged 65 years and older and analyzed interview transcripts with a reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Older adults desired diverse outcomes from their physical activity participation, ranging from generic (e.g., quality of life) to specific (e.g., leg strength). Relevant outcomes were classified under five themes: physical, clinical, social, psychological, and overarching, each with respective subthemes. Conclusions: The outcomes that older adults found important were plentiful and rooted in a desire to improve their quality of life. Some of the outcome themes have been reported frequently in past trials (e.g., physical), but others have not (e.g., social). Future researchers should be aware of, and responsive to, the priorities of older adults when designing trials and defining outcomes. Significance/Implications: This study will help to improve outcome selection for future trials of physical activity with older adults. In alignment with a patient-oriented research philosophy, this study will also ground future outcome selection in the priorities of older adults.

Open access

Predicting Injuries in Elite Female Football Players With Global-Positioning-System and Multiomics Data

Juan R. González, Alejandro Cáceres, Eva Ferrer, Laura Balagué-Dobón, Xavier Escribà-Montagut, David Sarrat-González, Guillermo Quintás, and Gil Rodas

Purpose: Injury prevention is a crucial aspect of sports, particularly in high-performance settings such as elite female football. This study aimed to develop an injury prediction model that incorporates clinical, Global-Positioning-System (GPS), and multiomics (genomics and metabolomics) data to better understand the factors associated with injury in elite female football players. Methods: We designed a prospective cohort study over 2 seasons (2019–20 and 2021–22) of noncontact injuries in 24 elite female players in the Spanish Premiership competition. We used GPS data to determine external workload, genomic data to capture genetic susceptibility, and metabolomic data to measure internal workload. Results: Forty noncontact injuries were recorded, the most frequent of which were muscle (63%) and ligament (20%) injuries. The baseline risk model included fat mass and the random effect of the player. Six genetic polymorphisms located at the DCN, ADAMTS5, ESRRB, VEGFA, and MMP1 genes were associated with injuries after adjusting for player load (P < .05). The genetic score created with these 6 variants determined groups of players with different profile risks (P = 3.1 × 10−4). Three metabolites (alanine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxy-tryptophan) correlated with injuries. The model comprising baseline variables, genetic score, and player load showed the best prediction capacity (C-index: .74). Conclusions: Our model could allow efficient, personalized interventions based on an athlete’s vulnerability. However, we emphasize the necessity for further research in female athletes with an emphasis on validation studies involving other teams and individuals. By expanding the scope of our research and incorporating diverse populations, we can bolster the generalizability and robustness of our proposed model.

Open access

Follow the Arrows: Using a Co-Created Causal Loop Diagram to Explore Leverage Points to Strengthen Population Physical Activity Promotion in British Columbia, Canada

Lori Baugh Littlejohns, Geoffrey McKee, Drona Rasali, Daniel Naiman, Jennafer Mee, Tanya Osborne, Phuc Dang, Meghan Winters, Scott A. Lear, Diane Nelson, Steve McGinley, and Guy Faulkner

Background: Population physical activity promotion (PPAP) is one of the most effective noncommunicable disease prevention strategies, yet coordination is lacking around the world. Whole-of-system approaches and complex systems methods are called for to advance PPAP. This paper reports on a project which (1) used an Attributes Framework with system mapping (group model building and causal loop diagramming of feedback loops) and (2) identified potential leverage points to address the challenge of effective coordination of multisectoral PPAP in British Columbia. Methods: Key findings from stakeholder interviews and workshops described the current system for PPAP in terms of attributes and dimensions in the framework. These were translated into variables and used in group model building. Participants prioritized the importance of variables to address the coordination challenge and then created causal loop diagrams in 3 small groups. One collective causal loop diagram was created, and top priority variables and associated feedback loops were highlighted to explore potential leverage points. Results: Leverage points included the relationships and feedback loops among priority variables: political leadership, visible policy support and governance, connectivity for knowledge translation, collaborative multisector grants, multisector collaboration, and integrating co-benefits. Leveraging and altering “vicious” cyclical patterns to increase coordinated multisector PPAP are key. Conclusions: The Attributes Framework, group model building and causal loop diagrams, and emergent feedback loops were useful to explore potential leverage points to address the challenge of multisectoral coordination of PPAP. Future research could apply the same methods in other jurisdictions and compare and contrast resultant frameworks, variables, feedback loops, and leverage points.

Open access

Athletes’ Perspectives of the Classification System in Para Alpine Skiing for Those With Visual Impairment

Sara M. Douglas, Paul J. Kitchin, Andrew J. Jackson, Brendan T. Barrett, and Julie-Anne Little

This study explored the classification experiences and views of Para Alpine skiers with visual impairment. Data from 11  interviews were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis to generate three themes: Suitability—The skiers questioned the suitability of the visual measurements, testing environment, and the information they received regarding classification; Exclusivity—Skiers felt certain aspects of the system remain exclusive due to the restrictions of sport classes and lack of the athlete voice; and (Dis)trust—Skiers felt distrust in those implementing the system and in other athletes due to intentional misrepresentation. Speculation surrounding this resulted in the skiers’ feeling doubt in their own classification. While there is not a “one size fits all” approach to classification, understanding skiers’ experiences can be a vital first step and will help to guide future research into the evolution of this sport’s classification.

Free access

Erratum. The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma, Exercise Addiction, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Basic Psychological Needs in Türkiye

Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

Free access

Erratum. Predicting Accelerometer-Assessed Estimates of Adolescent’s Multidimensional Physical Activity: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

Free access

Response of Knee Joint Biomechanics to Landing Under Internal and External Focus of Attention in Female Volleyball Players

Lukáš Slovák, David Zahradník, William M. Land, Javad Sarvestan, Joseph Hamill, and Reza Abdollahipour

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of attentional focus instructions on the biomechanical variables associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee joint during a drop landing task using a time series analysis. Ten female volleyball players (age: 20.4 ± 0.8 years, height: 169.7 ± 7.1 cm, mass: 57.6 ± 3.1 kg, experience: 6.3 ± 0.8 years) performed landings from a 50 cm height under three different attentional focus conditions: (1) external focus (focus on landing as soft as possible), (2) internal focus (focus on bending your knees when you land), and (3) control (no-focus instruction). Statistical parameter mapping in the sagittal plane during the crucial first 30% of landing time showed a significant effect of attentional focus instructions. Despite the similarity in landing performance across foci instructions, adopting an external focus instruction promoted reduced vertical ground reaction force and lower sagittal flexion moment during the first 30% of execution time compared to internal focus, suggesting reduced knee loading. Therefore, adopting an external focus of attention was suggested to reduce most biomechanical risk variables in the sagittal plane associated with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, compared to internal focus and control condition. No significant differences were found in the frontal and horizontal planes between the conditions during this crucial interval.

Free access

The 2022 Janus 2.0 Conference Papers: Introduction to the Special Issue

Kevin Andrew Richards, Kim C. Graber, and Amelia Mays Woods