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International Society of Research and Advocacy for Developmental Coordination Disorder (ISRA-DCD)—15th Biannual Conference and International Motor Development Research Consortium (I-MDRC)—6th Assembly

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Mindfulness and Psychological Inflexibility in Portuguese Adolescent Athletes: A Novel Framework for Understanding the Link Between Shame and Sports Anxiety

Sara Margarida Simões de Oliveira, Marina Isabel Vieira Antunes Cunha, António Fernando Boleto Rosado, Mariana Saraiva, and Cláudia Rute Carlos Ferreira

This study aimed to test a comprehensive model in adolescent athletes that explores the effect of shame on sports anxiety and whether psychological inflexibility and mindfulness influence this association. The sample study included 210 young Portuguese athletes from different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 49% of the variance in sports anxiety. Results demonstrated that athletes who experienced higher levels of shame tended to exhibit elevated levels of sports anxiety through lower levels of mindfulness and higher psychological inflexibility. The study offers new empirical data that may be relevant for clinical and sport psychology practitioners. These findings seem to underline the importance of addressing shame and, consequently, sports anxiety in adolescent athletes by developing greater psychological flexibility and, inherently, more mindfulness skills among adolescent athletes who are in a phase of their lives where sport can play a crucial role.

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Playing in Front of the Bench: Courtside Selection and Its Impact on Team Performance

Finn Spilker and Christian Deutscher

This paper analyzes the strategic decision of basket choice in the National Basketball Association. Before games start, the away team chooses whether to play on offense in front of their bench in the first or second half. Based on eight regular seasons and 9,308 games, we identify the standard strategy for away teams to play on offense at their own benches in the first half. Results indicate that both home and away teams score more points when they play on offense in front of their bench. More importantly, there is a strategic advantage for the away team to play with the offense in front of the bench in the second half, deviating from the standard strategy in the league. Finally, we demonstrate that the choice of the basket for the away team can partially offset the home advantage under normal spectator conditions and entirely nullify it in ghost games.

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Erratum. Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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The Intrinsic Properties of ActiGraph Counts and Alternatives

Jan Christian Brønd, Niels Christian Møller, and Anders Grøntved

There are currently several methods available to generate summary measures from acceleration, while ActiGraph (AG) counts as the first method to be used at large scale. The recent disclosure of the AG counts method exposes its intrinsic properties, which has not been accessible before. The intrinsic properties are the raw acceleration processing elements like filtering, rectification, or dead-band elimination, which are used to estimate physical activity intensity. The aim of this technical note is to compare the intrinsic properties of AG counts method with five alternatives (Euclidean Norm Minus One, mean average deviation, Activity Index, Rate of Change Accelerometry Movement, and Monitor-Independent Movement Summary) and how rescaling of AG counts and Monitor-Independent Movement Summary/minute into the International System of Units can be used to harmonize all summary measures and facilitate direct comparison. A total of 12 intrinsic properties are compared, and the overview demonstrates that there is large diversity regarding the specific intrinsic property elements being included, and with Monitor-Independent Movement Summary to be the only summary measure, which has been developed considering all elements. The harmonized output generated from all summary methods is highly comparable within common activities, but to obtain a robust summary measure recorded in subjects during free-living conditions, more research is warranted to evaluate the effect of the different intrinsic properties.

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Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Sarah T. Ryan, Anthony D. Okely, Kar Hau Chong, Rebecca M. Stanley, Melanie Randle, Gade Waqa, Ashley B. Yamanaka, Rachael Leon Guerrero, Patricia Coleman, Leslie Shallcross, Lynne R. Wilkens, Jonathan L. Deenik, and Rachel Novotny

Introduction: Limited data on 24-hour movement behaviors of children aged 5–8 years exist globally. We describe the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of meeting physical activity (PA), sedentary recreational screen time (ST), and sleep guidelines among children from 11 jurisdictions in the US-Affiliated Pacific region. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from 1192 children aged 5–8 years living in the US-Affiliated Pacific region were drawn from the baseline 2012–2014 Children’s Healthy Living Program. Sleep and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA were calculated from accelerometry. ST and sociodemographic data were collected from caregiver surveys. The percentage of children meeting the Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines for PA (≥60 min/d of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA), sleep (≥9 and ≤ 11 h/d) and ST (≤2 h/d) were calculated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine associations with adiposity and sociodemographic variables. Results: Twenty-seven percent (95% confidence interval, 24.6–30.0) of children met integrated guidelines; 98% (96.2–98.0) met PA, 78% (75.4–80.0) met sleep, and 35% (32.6–38.0) met ST guidelines. Females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.91]) and those living in lower-middle-income jurisdictions (2.29 [1.49–3.54]) were more likely to meet ST guidelines. Overweight children (0.62 [0.40–0.96]), those aged 8 years (0.39 [0.22–0.69]), and children with caregivers of an education level of high school or beyond (0.44 [0.29–0.68]) were less likely to achieve ST guidelines. Children from midrange annual household incomes were less likely to meet combined guidelines (0.60 [0.39–0.92]). Conclusions: Three-quarters of children are not meeting integrated Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines. Future strategies for reducing ST and increasing integrated guidelines compliance are needed.

Open access

“Now I Am Walking Toward Health”: A Qualitative Study About the Outcomes of Physical Activity Participation That Matter to Older Adults

Peter J. Young, Christine Wallsworth, Hitika Gosal, and Dawn C. Mackey

Background/Objectives: Randomized controlled trials that deliver physical activity interventions have demonstrated benefits for older adults across numerous health outcomes. However, too little attention has been directed to ensuring that such trials are measuring patient-relevant outcomes. To support outcome selection for future trials, the objective of this study was to understand what outcomes related to their physical activity participation older adults find important. Methods: We conducted 12 semistructured interviews with adults aged 65 years and older and analyzed interview transcripts with a reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Older adults desired diverse outcomes from their physical activity participation, ranging from generic (e.g., quality of life) to specific (e.g., leg strength). Relevant outcomes were classified under five themes: physical, clinical, social, psychological, and overarching, each with respective subthemes. Conclusions: The outcomes that older adults found important were plentiful and rooted in a desire to improve their quality of life. Some of the outcome themes have been reported frequently in past trials (e.g., physical), but others have not (e.g., social). Future researchers should be aware of, and responsive to, the priorities of older adults when designing trials and defining outcomes. Significance/Implications: This study will help to improve outcome selection for future trials of physical activity with older adults. In alignment with a patient-oriented research philosophy, this study will also ground future outcome selection in the priorities of older adults.

Open access

Follow the Arrows: Using a Co-Created Causal Loop Diagram to Explore Leverage Points to Strengthen Population Physical Activity Promotion in British Columbia, Canada

Lori Baugh Littlejohns, Geoffrey McKee, Drona Rasali, Daniel Naiman, Jennafer Mee, Tanya Osborne, Phuc Dang, Meghan Winters, Scott A. Lear, Diane Nelson, Steve McGinley, and Guy Faulkner

Background: Population physical activity promotion (PPAP) is one of the most effective noncommunicable disease prevention strategies, yet coordination is lacking around the world. Whole-of-system approaches and complex systems methods are called for to advance PPAP. This paper reports on a project which (1) used an Attributes Framework with system mapping (group model building and causal loop diagramming of feedback loops) and (2) identified potential leverage points to address the challenge of effective coordination of multisectoral PPAP in British Columbia. Methods: Key findings from stakeholder interviews and workshops described the current system for PPAP in terms of attributes and dimensions in the framework. These were translated into variables and used in group model building. Participants prioritized the importance of variables to address the coordination challenge and then created causal loop diagrams in 3 small groups. One collective causal loop diagram was created, and top priority variables and associated feedback loops were highlighted to explore potential leverage points. Results: Leverage points included the relationships and feedback loops among priority variables: political leadership, visible policy support and governance, connectivity for knowledge translation, collaborative multisector grants, multisector collaboration, and integrating co-benefits. Leveraging and altering “vicious” cyclical patterns to increase coordinated multisector PPAP are key. Conclusions: The Attributes Framework, group model building and causal loop diagrams, and emergent feedback loops were useful to explore potential leverage points to address the challenge of multisectoral coordination of PPAP. Future research could apply the same methods in other jurisdictions and compare and contrast resultant frameworks, variables, feedback loops, and leverage points.

Free access

Erratum. The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma, Exercise Addiction, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Basic Psychological Needs in Türkiye

Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

Open access

Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Contraceptive Symptom Severity and Frequency in Athletic Females

Laura R. Kiemle-Gabbay, Stephanie Valentin, Daniel Martin, and Laura J. Forrest (née Whyte)

The purpose of this study was to determine symptom severity and frequency in female exercisers and athletes from a diverse range of sports who have a menstrual cycle (MC) or use hormonal contraceptives (HCs). An additional aim was to explore the perceived impact of MC/HC use upon exercise and sport performance. In total, 604 self-identifying female athletes and exercisers (M = 29.4 years, SD = 9.0) from 85 sports/activities completed a survey which included: sport/exercise participation, bleeding characteristics, HC use, symptom severity/frequency, symptom management strategies, menstrual product use, and perceived impact of MC/HC use on exercise performance. The data were subject to mixed-methods analysis. Over one third (n = 225; 37.25%) of participants reported current HC use. Ninety-five percent (95.36%) of participants experienced symptoms related to MC or HC use. Physiological, psychological, and affective symptoms were all among the most prevalent. The most frequently noted severe and very severe symptoms for all participants, MC and HC users, were abdominal cramps (36.92%, 39.32%, and 32.89%, respectively), mood changes (26.16%, 25.07%, and 28.00%, respectively), and tiredness (25.33%, 25.59%, and 24.89%, respectively). Symptom impact was self-managed through medical and/or other (cognitive/behavioral) strategies. Qualitative content analysis of the data produced four overarching themes: (a) the impact of symptoms, (b) menstrual stigma and taboos, (c) protective factors, and (d) coping strategies. In conclusion, menstruation is a multifaceted, unique experience that impacts upon sport/exercise performance. Practitioners should consider athletes’ distinct needs, including the frequency of occurrence and severity of their symptomatic experiences, when facilitating menstruation-supportive training, avoiding a “one-size fits-all” approach.