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Lucas C. Bianco

A 58-year-old female had a total knee arthroplasty due to arthritic changes in her right knee, along with pain and loss of function. Mind and body intervention techniques were utilized to improve patient-centered outcomes. Protocols are in place for the rehabilitation of patients following a total knee arthroplasty. However, sometimes the mind–body connection can be disrupted, and plateaus in the rehabilitative process may benefit from innovative techniques. As patient-centered care, biopsychosocial models, and collaborative practice continue to push the athletic training profession, these types of cases that provide holistic approaches to expand health care will lead to future research.

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Marcella A. Raney, Abbie L. Bowers, and Amanda L. Rissberger

Background: Green schoolyard renovations lead to immediate positive changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and social behavior. This pilot study examines whether these benefits are equally distributed across gender and age and maintained 16 months postgreening. Methods: Physical activity and social interactions during recess were recorded at control (n = 389) and experimental (n = 642) Title I urban elementary schools with direct observation and accelerometers. Results: Activity profiles were similar to 4-month postgreening and to baseline for experimental girls and boys, respectively. There was no difference in MVPA minutes between sexes (girls = 11.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.1 to 12.5]; boys = 12.8; 95% CI, 12.0 to 13.4) and no difference in sitting minutes between age groups (first to fourth = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.6; fifth to sixth = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4) in green areas. Experimental students spent more time in MVPA (11.2 min; 95% CI, 10.6 to 11.8 vs 8.9 min; 95% CI, 8.3 to 9.3), in small groups (10.6 min; 95% CI, 10.2 to 11.0 vs 9.2 min; 95% CI, 8.5 to 9.9), and engaged in more prosocial interactions (5.5; 95% CI, 5.1 to 6.3 vs 3.7; 95% CI, 3.0 to 4.2) than control students. Conclusions: Green schoolyard renovations result in persistent changes to recess behavior that are characteristic of a more collaborative community and counteract age-related declines in MVPA, particularly for girls.

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Fernando G. Beltrami and Timothy D. Noakes

Purpose: This study aimecd to investigate whether elite athletes could reach higher values of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) during a decremental exercise test in comparison with a traditional incremental test, as recently demonstrated in trained individuals. Methods: Nine male runners (age 25.8 [5.1] y, season best 10-km time 31:19 [1:50]) performed, on different days, 3 maximal uphill (5% grade) running exercise tests in fixed order: an incremental test (INC1), a V-shape exercise test (where speed started at 0.5 km·h−1 higher than the top stage finished during INC1 and was slowly decreased during 5.5 min, when it was again increased in similar fashion to the INC tests), and a final incremental test (INC2). Results: V˙O2max during the V-shape exercise test was higher than during INC1 (6.3% [3.0%], P = .01), although running speed was lower (16.6 [1.7] vs 17.9 [1.6] km·h−1, P = .01). Performance was similar between INC1 and INC2, but V˙O2max during INC2 was higher than INC1 (P < .001). During the V-shape exercise test, 5 participants reached the incremental part of the test, but V˙O2 did not increase (ΔV˙O2=52 [259]mL·min1, P = .67), despite higher running speed (approximately 1.1 km·h−1, P < .01). Heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, breathing rate, and respiratory exchange ratio measured at V˙O2max were not different between tests. Conclusion: A decremental exercise test of sufficient intensity can produce higher V˙O2max than a traditional incremental test, even in elite athletes, and this is maintained during a subsequent incremental test.

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Ana C. Santos-Mariano, Fabiano Tomazini, Cintia Rodacki, Romulo Bertuzzi, Fernando De-Oliveira, and Adriano E. Lima-Silva

Purpose: To investigate the effects of caffeine (CAF) on performance during high- and long-jump competitions. Methods: Using a crossover and double-blind design, 6 well-trained high jumpers and 6 well-trained long jumpers performed a simulation of a high- and long-jump competition 60 minutes after ingesting a capsule containing either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass of anhydrous CAF or a placebo. The high jumps were video recorded for kinematic analysis. The velocity during the approach run of the long jump was also monitored using photocells. Results: CAF improved jump performance (ie, the highest bar height overlap increased by 5.1% [2.3%], P = .008), as well as enhancing the height displacement of the central body mass (+1.3% [1.7%], P = .004) compared with the placebo. CAF had no ergogenic effect on jump distance (P = .722); however, CAF increased the velocity during the last 10 m of the long jump (P = .019), and the percentage of “foul jumps” was higher than that expected by chance in the CAF group (80.5% [12.5%], χ2 = 13.44, P < .001) but not in the cellulose condition (58.3% [22.9%], χ2 = 1.48, P = .224). Conclusion: CAF ingestion (5 mg·kg−1 body mass) improves high-jump performance but seems to negatively influence technical aspects during the approach run of the long jump, resulting in no improvement in long-jump performance. Thus, CAF can be useful for jumpers, but the specificity of the jump competition must be taken into account.

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Adrien Vachon, Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Jean-Baptiste Paquet, and Laurent Bosquet

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical fitness and repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) ability in elite rugby union players, depending on playing position. Method: Thirty-nine players underwent a fitness testing battery composed of a body composition assessment, upper-body strength (1-repetition maximum bench press and 1-repetition maximum bench row), lower-body strength (6-repetition maximum back squat), and power (countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arms, and 20-m sprint), as well as aerobic fitness (Bronco test) and RHIE tests over a 1-week period. Pearson linear correlations were used to quantify relationships between fitness tests and the RHIE performance outcomes (total sprint time [TST] and percentage decrement [%D]). Thereafter, a stepwise multiple regression model was used to verify the influence of physical fitness measures on RHIE ability. Results: TST was strongly to very strongly associated to body fat (BF, r = .82, P < .01), the 20-m sprint (r = .86, P < .01), countermovement jump (r = −.72, P < .01), and Bronco test (r = .90, P < .01). These fitness outcomes were related to %D, with moderate to strong associations (.82 > ∣r∣ > .54, P < .01). By playing position, similar associations were observed in forwards, but RHIE ability was only related to the 20-m sprint in backs (r = .53, P < .05). The RHIE performance model equations were TST = 13.69 + 0.01 × BF + 0.08 × Bronco + 10.20 × 20 m and %D = −14.34 + 0.11 × BF +0.18 × Bronco − 9.92 × 20 m. These models explain 88.8% and 68.2% of the variance, respectively. Conclusion: Body composition, lower-body power, and aerobic fitness were highly related with RHIE ability. However, backs expressed a different profile than forwards, suggesting that further research with larger sample sizes is needed to better understand the fitness determinants of backs’ RHIE ability.

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Peter Leo, James Spragg, Iñigo Mujika, Andrea Giorgi, Dan Lorang, Dieter Simon, and Justin S. Lawley

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the power profile, internal and external workloads, and racing performance between U23 and professional cyclists and between varying rider types across 2 editions of a professional multistage race. Methods: Nine U23 cyclists from a Union Cycliste Internationale “Continental Team” (age 20.8 [0.9] y; body mass 71.2 [6.3] kg) and 8 professional cyclists (28.1 [3.2] y; 63.0 [4.6] kg) participated in this study. Rider types were defined as all-rounders, general classification (GC) riders, and domestiques. Data were collected during 2 editions of a 5-day professional multistage race and split into the following 4 categories: power profile, external and internal workloads, and race performance. Results: The professional group, including domestiques and GC riders, recorded higher relative power profile values after certain amounts of total work (1000–3000 kJ) than the U23 group or all-rounders (P ≤ .001–.049). No significant differences were found for external workload measures between U23 and professional cyclists, nor among rider types. Internal workloads were higher in U23 cyclists and all-rounders (P ≤ .001–.043) compared with professionals, domestiques, and GC riders, respectively. The power profile significantly predicted percentage general classification and Union Cycliste Internationale points (R 2 = .90–.99), whereas external and internal workloads did not. Conclusion: These findings reveal that the power profile represents a practical tool to discriminate between professionals and U23 cyclists as well as rider types. The power profile after 1000 to 3000 kJ of total work could be used by practitioners to evaluate the readiness of U23 cyclists to move into the professional ranks, as well as differentiate between rider types.