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Alireza Paahoo, Vahid Tadibi, and Nasser Behpoor

Purpose: Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disease whose first steps can be initiated from childhood. Therefore, we examined the effects of 2 training models on salusins levels, inflammatory markers, and lipid profile in boys with overweight/obesity. Method: Forty-five boys with overweight/obesity with the mean age of 11.06 (1.0) years were randomly divided into three groups of 15: a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (100%–110% of maximum aerobic speed); an aerobic training group (40%–70% of heart rate reserve); and a control group. The intervention included 3 sessions per week for 12 weeks. Results: Findings showed significant improvements in serum levels of salusins, salusins ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and total cholesterol (TC) in both training groups (P < .001). Also, the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and cholesterol index improved significantly (P < .01). Except for the TG, HIIT caused higher improvements than aerobic training (P < .001 for salusin-α, salusins ratio, IL-6, CRP, TC, HDL, AIP, and cholesterol index; and P < .01 for salusin-β and LDL). Conclusion: The present study shows that HIIT has more positive effects than aerobic exercise on the atherosclerotic and inflammatory factors, as well as lipid profile variables in children with overweight/obesity.

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Cesar L. Teixeira, Paulo V. Mezzaroba, and Fabiana A. Machado

Purpose: To analyze the acute effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) on swimming critical velocity (CV). Methods: A total of 15 male federated swimmers (20.9 [2.4] y old) participated in this study. Three sets of front crawl were performed at distances of 100, 200, and 400 m to determine the CV under 3 experimental conditions: PBM (420 J), placebo (PLA), and control (C) in this randomized, crossover, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. One-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements was used for statistical analyses. Results: The results showed that the prior application of PBM did not have ergogenic effects on CV and front crawl swimming performance: CV (PBM = 1.15 [0.15]; PLA = 1.20 [0.25]; C = 1.15 [0.14] m·s−1), swim time (ST) 100 m (PBM = 65.5 [6.3]; PLA = 65.2 [5.6]; C = 66.0 [5.9] s), ST 200 m (PBM = 148.5 [17.9]; PLA = 149.4 [16.4]; C = 150.1 [17.9] s), and ST 400 m (PBM = 327.7 [38.2]; PLA = 321.6 [47.7]; C = 329.5 [41.2] s). Conclusions: A PBM application prior to front crawl swimming test did not significantly modify the CV, ST, physiological factors of metabolic fatigue, perceptual, and front crawl stroke efficiency parameters in competition swimmers covering distances of 100, 200, and 400 m.

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Cristian Ieno, Roberto Baldassarre, Maddalena Pennacchi, Antonio La Torre, Marco Bonifazi, and Maria Francesca Piacentini

Purpose: To analyze training-intensity distribution (TID) using different independent monitoring systems for internal training load in a group of elite open-water swimmers. Methods: One hundred sixty training sessions were monitored in 4 elite open-water swimmers (2 females and 2 males: 23.75 [4.86] y, 62.25 [6.18] kg, 167 [6.68] cm) during 5 weeks of regular training. Heart-rate-based methods, such as time in zone (TIZ), session goal (SG), and hybrid (SG/TIZ), were used to analyze TID. Similarly to SG/TIZ, a new hybrid approach, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)/TIZ for a more accurate analysis of TID was used. Moreover, based on the 3-zone model, the session ratings of perceived exertion of the swimmers and the coach were compared. Results: Heart-rate- and RPE-based TID methods were significantly different in quantifying Z1 (P = .012; effect size [ES] = 0.490) and Z2 (P = .006; ES = 0.778), while no difference was observed in the quantification of Z3 (P = .428; ES = 0.223). The heart-rate-based data for Z1, Z2, and Z3 were 83.2%, 7.4%, and 8.1% for TIZ; 80.8%, 8.3%, and 10.8% for SG/TIZ; and 55%, 15.6%, and 29.4% for SG. The RPE-based data were 70.9%, 19.9%, and 9.2% for RPE/TIZ% and 41.2%, 48.9%, and 9.7% for the session rating of perceived exertion. No differences were observed between the coach’s and the swimmers’ session ratings of perceived exertion in the 3 zones (Z1: P = .663, ES = −0.187; Z2: P = .110, ES = 0.578; Z3: P = .149, ES = 0.420). Conclusion: Using RPE-based TID methods, Z2 was significantly larger compared with Z1. These results show that RPE-based TID methods in elite open-water swimmers are affected by both intensity and volume.

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Wassim Moalla, Mohamed Saifeddin Fessi, Sabeur Nouira, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Valter Di Salvo, and Said Ahmaidi

Purpose: To investigate the optimal pretaper duration on match running performance in a professional soccer team. Methods: The training load was monitored during daily training sessions and matches during 2 seasons according to different periodization strategies. Matches’ running distances were collected using match analysis system. The data were analyzed in 3 types of mesocycle blocks of 5 (M5), 4 (M4), and 3 weeks (M3), concludes all of them by 1 taper week. Results: Significant decreases in the training load during the taper weeks compared to standard weeks were observed in 3 types of mesocycle blocks (d ≥ 5; P < .01). An increase in overall match running performance was observed in matches played after the taper weeks compared to matches played after the standard weeks during M4 for all speed ranges (d ≥ 1.3; P < .05). The increase was only observed in low-intensity running (d = 1.3; P < .04) and total distance, low-intensity running, and intense running (d ≥ 1.3; P < .05) in M5 and M3, respectively. Match running performance following the taper weeks between the 3 different mesocycle durations was significantly higher in M4 for the number of high-speed running, sprinting, and high-intensity running (P < .05). The greatest enhancement of match running performance was observed at M4 when the training load was decreased by approximately 18% during the tapering period. Conclusion: This study suggests that a period of 3 standard weeks of training followed by 1 taper week is the optimal taper strategy when compared to different pretaper durations.

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Peter W. Harrison, Lachlan P. James, David G. Jenkins, Michael R. McGuigan, Robert W. Schuster, and Vincent G. Kelly

Purpose: The aim of this study was to map responses over 32 hours following high-load (HL) and moderate-load (ML) half-squat priming. Methods: Fifteen participants completed control, HL (87% 1RM), and ML (65% 1RM) activities in randomized, counterbalanced order. Countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), saliva testosterone, saliva cortisol, and perceptual measures were assessed before and 5 minutes, 8 hours, 24 hours, and 32 hours after each activity. Results are presented as percentage change from baseline and 95% confidence interval (CI). Cliff delta was used to determine threshold for group changes. Results: SJ height increased by 4.5% (CI = 2.2–6.8, Cliff delta = 0.20) 8 hours following HL. CMJ and SJ improved by 6.1% (CI = 2.1–7.8, Cliff delta = 0.27) and 6.5% (CI = 1.2–11.8, Cliff delta = 0.30), respectively, 32 hours after ML. No clear diurnal changes in CMJ or SJ occurred 8 hours following control; however, increases of 3.9% (CI = 2.9–9.2, Cliff delta = 0.26) and 4.5% (CI = 0.9–8.1, Cliff delta = 0.24), respectively, were observed after 32 hours. Although diurnal changes in saliva hormone concentration occurred (Cliff delta = 0.37–0.92), the influence of priming was unclear. Perceived “physical feeling” was greater 8 hours following HL (Cliff delta = 0.36) and 32 hours after ML and control (Cliff delta = 0.17–0.34). Conclusions: HL priming in the morning may result in small improvements in jump output and psychophysiological state in the afternoon. Similar improvements were observed in the afternoon the day after ML priming.

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Ragab K. Elnaggar, Mohammed A. Shendy, and Mahmoud S. Elfakharany

Purpose: To appraise the effects of incremental aerobic training (IAT) on systemic inflammatory mediators, cardiorespiratory indices, and functional capacity in obese children with bronchial asthma. Methods: This study included 30 children with asthma (age = 8–16 y) allocated randomly into either the control group (n = 15; received the traditional pulmonary rehabilitation program) or IAT group (n = 15; engaged in 8 weeks of IAT in addition to the traditional pulmonary rehabilitation program). The systemic inflammatory mediators (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), cardiorespiratory indices (peak oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, maximum heart rate, heart rate recovery at 1 min after exercises, and oxygen pulse), and functional capacity (represented by 6-min walk test) were analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment. Results: A significant reduction in the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and increase in peak oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, maximum heart rate, and heart rate recovery at 1 minute after exercises was observed among the IAT group as compared with the control group. In addition, the IAT group covered a longer distance in the 6-minute walk test than the control group, suggesting favorable functional capacity. Conclusion: The study results imply that IAT has the potential to improve the inflammatory profile, cardiorespiratory fitness, and functional capacity of obese children with bronchial asthma.

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Mark L. Latash and Vera L. Talis

The authors have presented an unpublished manuscript by Nikolai Aleksandrovich Bernstein written in the form of a diary in 1949. Bernstein focused on the concept of time as a coordinate in four-dimensional space and discussed a variety of issues, including the definition of time, its measurement, time travel, asymmetry of the past and future, and even linguistics. In particular, he offered a definition of life tightly linked to the concept of time. Overall, this manuscript offers a glimpse into Bernstein’s thinking, his sense of humor, and his sarcasm, intimately coupled with the very serious attitude to scientific discourse.

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Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, and Christopher R. West

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Catherine Carty, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Fiona Bull, Juana Willumsen, Lindsay Lee, Kaloyan Kamenov, and Karen Milton

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Hal A. Lawson

Twentieth-Century Physical Education gave rise to Kinesiology. Today’s Kinesiology structures and influences Physical Education. Boundary crossing and bridge building facilitate analysis of their relations and have import for investigations of career pathways and outcomes. Decisions regarding boundaries and bridges will impact the futures of Kinesiology, Physical Education, and their relations in diverse, turbulent higher education environments.