The authors’ purpose was to examine the factors associated with penalty outcomes of male elite goalball. A total of 122 video-recorded matches from two Paralympic Games (i.e., 2012 and 2016) and the 2014 Goalball World Championship were assessed using notational analysis. Individual (n = 2), situational (n = 4), and performance variables (n = 7) were analyzed with good strength of agreement for intra- and interrater kappa index values. Their results showed that penalties play a very important role in the final score, composing around 25% of total goals in elite goalball matches. Winners were awarded on average with 62% of penalties and had 66% effectiveness compared with losers (31% and 53%) or drawers (8% and 52%). Based on the authors’ findings, penalty takers should direct their throws at specific target sectors on the court, which could increase their rate of success to over 80%.
Otávio Luis Piva da Cunha Furtado, Mikko Häyrinen, Isabela dos Santos Alves, Leonardo Travitzki, and Márcio Pereira Morato
Joanna M. Auger and Nancy L.I. Spencer
Justifications for access to physical activity for people who experience disability tend to focus on the health benefits associated with a medical model of disability. The result is often programs that are segregated and impairment-focused, with limited access to integrated settings that are also potentially inclusive. In this instrumental case study, the authors engaged 20 participants with and without impairment from an adult integrated indoor cycling program to explore what contributed to meaningful and inclusive experiences in this setting. Data were generated through semistructured interviews and reflective notes. Thematic analysis led to three themes: (a) “just going to a spin class” (b) “seamless”? and (c) “deliberate community.” Using a relational ethics framework, the findings are discussed with regard to their potential to inform the development of integrated and inclusive physical activity programs, with emphasis on program structure and instructor reflexivity and training.
Mitchell J. Henderson, Bryna C.R. Chrismas, Christopher J. Stevens, Andrew Novak, Job Fransen, Aaron J. Coutts, and Lee Taylor
Purpose: To determine whether elite female rugby sevens players are exposed to core temperatures (Tc) during training in the heat that replicate the temperate match demands previously reported and to investigate whether additional clothing worn during a hot training session meaningfully increases the heat load experienced. Methods: A randomized parallel-group study design was employed, with all players completing the same approximately 70-minute training session (27.5°C–34.8°C wet bulb globe temperature) and wearing a standardized training ensemble (synthetic rugby shorts and training tee [control (CON); n = 8]) or additional clothing (standardized training ensemble plus compression garments and full tracksuit [additional clothing (AC); n = 6]). Groupwise differences in Tc, sweat rate, GPS-measured external locomotive output, rating of perceived exertion, and perceptual thermal load were compared. Results: Mean (P = .006,
Kay Winkert, Johannes Kirsten, Rupert Kamnig, Jürgen M. Steinacker, and Gunnar Treff
Purpose: Automated metabolic analyzers are frequently utilized to measure maximal oxygen consumption (
Cristiano Dall’ Agnol, Tiago Turnes, and Ricardo Dantas De Lucas
Purpose: Cyclists may increase exercise intensity by prolonging exercise duration and/or shortening the recovery period during self-paced interval training, which could impact the time spent near
Danica Janicijevic, Ivan Jukic, Jonathon Weakley, and Amador García-Ramos
Purpose: To compare the accuracy of nine 1-repetition maximum (1RM) prediction methods during the paused and touch-and-go bench press exercises performed in a Smith machine. Method: A total of 86 men performed 2 identical sessions (incremental loading test until reaching the 1RM followed by a set to failure) in a randomized order during the paused and touch-and-go bench press exercises. Individualized load–velocity relationships were modeled by linear and polynomial regression models considering 4 loads (45%–60%–75%–90% of 1RM) (multiple-point methods) and considering only 2 loads (45%–90% of 1RM) by a linear regression (2-point method). Three minimal velocity thresholds were used: the general velocity of 0.17 m·s−1 (general velocity of the 1RM [V1RM]), the velocity obtained when lifting the 1RM load (individual V1RM), and the velocity obtained during the last repetition of a set to failure. Results: The 1RM prediction methods were generally valid (range: r = .96–.99, standard error of the estimate = 2.8–4.9 kg or 4.6%–8.0% of 1RM). The multiple-point linear method (2.79 [2.29] kg) was more precise than the multiple-point polynomial method (3.54 [3.31] kg; P = .013), but no significant differences were observed when compared with the 2-point method (3.09 [2.66] kg, P = .136). The velocity of the last repetition of a set to failure (3.47 [2.97] kg) was significantly less precise than the individual V1RM (2.91 [2.75] kg, P = .009) and general V1RM (3.00 [2.65] kg, P = .010). Conclusions: Linear regression models and a general minimal velocity threshold of 0.17 m·s−1 should be recommended to obtain a quick and precise estimation of the 1RM during the bench press exercise performed in a Smith machine.
Suzanna Russell, Marni J. Simpson, Angus G. Evans, Tristan J. Coulter, and Vincent G. Kelly
Purpose: To investigate and explore the relationships between physiological and perceptual recovery and stress responses to elite netball tournament workloads. Methods: Nine elite female netballers were observed across a 3-day (T1–3), 4-match tournament. Participants provided salivary samples for cortisol and alpha-amylase analysis, completed the Short Recovery Stress Scale (SRSS), and reported session ratings of perceived exertion. Inertial measurement units and heart-rate monitors determined player load, changes of direction (COD), summated heart-rate zones, and jumps. Results: Analysis revealed 6 significant SRSS time effects: (1) decreased recovery markers of physical performance (P = .042), emotional balance (P = .034), and overall recovery (P = .001) and (2) increased perceptual stress markers of muscular stress (P = .001), negative emotional state (P = .026), and overall stress (P = .010). Salivary cortisol decreased over the tournament (T1–3) before progressively increasing posttournament with greater salivary samples for cortisol on T+2 compared with T3 (P = .014, ES = −1.29; −2.24 to −0.22]) and T+1 (P = .031, ES = −1.54; −2.51 to −0.42). SRSS overall recovery moderately negatively correlated with COD (r = −.41, P = .028) and session ratings of perceived exertion (r = −.40, P = .034). Cumulative workload did not relate to posttournament perceptual or salivary responses. Percentage change in salivary variables related (P < .05) to total player load, total COD, and overall recovery across specific cumulative time periods. Conclusions: During and after an elite netball tournament, athletes indicated increased perceptual stress and lack of recovery. The SRSS is a valuable tool for recovery–stress monitoring in elite tournament netball. It is recommended that practitioners monitor COD due to its negative influence on perceived overall recovery.
Cesar L. Teixeira, Paulo V. Mezzaroba, and Fabiana A. Machado
Purpose: To analyze the acute effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) on swimming critical velocity (CV). Methods: A total of 15 male federated swimmers (20.9 [2.4] y old) participated in this study. Three sets of front crawl were performed at distances of 100, 200, and 400 m to determine the CV under 3 experimental conditions: PBM (420 J), placebo (PLA), and control (C) in this randomized, crossover, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. One-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements was used for statistical analyses. Results: The results showed that the prior application of PBM did not have ergogenic effects on CV and front crawl swimming performance: CV (PBM = 1.15 [0.15]; PLA = 1.20 [0.25]; C = 1.15 [0.14] m·s−1), swim time (ST) 100 m (PBM = 65.5 [6.3]; PLA = 65.2 [5.6]; C = 66.0 [5.9] s), ST 200 m (PBM = 148.5 [17.9]; PLA = 149.4 [16.4]; C = 150.1 [17.9] s), and ST 400 m (PBM = 327.7 [38.2]; PLA = 321.6 [47.7]; C = 329.5 [41.2] s). Conclusions: A PBM application prior to front crawl swimming test did not significantly modify the CV, ST, physiological factors of metabolic fatigue, perceptual, and front crawl stroke efficiency parameters in competition swimmers covering distances of 100, 200, and 400 m.
Cristian Ieno, Roberto Baldassarre, Maddalena Pennacchi, Antonio La Torre, Marco Bonifazi, and Maria Francesca Piacentini
Purpose: To analyze training-intensity distribution (TID) using different independent monitoring systems for internal training load in a group of elite open-water swimmers. Methods: One hundred sixty training sessions were monitored in 4 elite open-water swimmers (2 females and 2 males: 23.75 [4.86] y, 62.25 [6.18] kg, 167 [6.68] cm) during 5 weeks of regular training. Heart-rate-based methods, such as time in zone (TIZ), session goal (SG), and hybrid (SG/TIZ), were used to analyze TID. Similarly to SG/TIZ, a new hybrid approach, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)/TIZ for a more accurate analysis of TID was used. Moreover, based on the 3-zone model, the session ratings of perceived exertion of the swimmers and the coach were compared. Results: Heart-rate- and RPE-based TID methods were significantly different in quantifying Z1 (P = .012; effect size [ES] = 0.490) and Z2 (P = .006; ES = 0.778), while no difference was observed in the quantification of Z3 (P = .428; ES = 0.223). The heart-rate-based data for Z1, Z2, and Z3 were 83.2%, 7.4%, and 8.1% for TIZ; 80.8%, 8.3%, and 10.8% for SG/TIZ; and 55%, 15.6%, and 29.4% for SG. The RPE-based data were 70.9%, 19.9%, and 9.2% for RPE/TIZ% and 41.2%, 48.9%, and 9.7% for the session rating of perceived exertion. No differences were observed between the coach’s and the swimmers’ session ratings of perceived exertion in the 3 zones (Z1: P = .663, ES = −0.187; Z2: P = .110, ES = 0.578; Z3: P = .149, ES = 0.420). Conclusion: Using RPE-based TID methods, Z2 was significantly larger compared with Z1. These results show that RPE-based TID methods in elite open-water swimmers are affected by both intensity and volume.
Wassim Moalla, Mohamed Saifeddin Fessi, Sabeur Nouira, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Valter Di Salvo, and Said Ahmaidi
Purpose: To investigate the optimal pretaper duration on match running performance in a professional soccer team. Methods: The training load was monitored during daily training sessions and matches during 2 seasons according to different periodization strategies. Matches’ running distances were collected using match analysis system. The data were analyzed in 3 types of mesocycle blocks of 5 (M5), 4 (M4), and 3 weeks (M3), concludes all of them by 1 taper week. Results: Significant decreases in the training load during the taper weeks compared to standard weeks were observed in 3 types of mesocycle blocks (d ≥ 5; P < .01). An increase in overall match running performance was observed in matches played after the taper weeks compared to matches played after the standard weeks during M4 for all speed ranges (d ≥ 1.3; P < .05). The increase was only observed in low-intensity running (d = 1.3; P < .04) and total distance, low-intensity running, and intense running (d ≥ 1.3; P < .05) in M5 and M3, respectively. Match running performance following the taper weeks between the 3 different mesocycle durations was significantly higher in M4 for the number of high-speed running, sprinting, and high-intensity running (P < .05). The greatest enhancement of match running performance was observed at M4 when the training load was decreased by approximately 18% during the tapering period. Conclusion: This study suggests that a period of 3 standard weeks of training followed by 1 taper week is the optimal taper strategy when compared to different pretaper durations.