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Marcel Ballin, Peter Nordström, and Anna Nordström

In this cross-sectional study, the authors investigated the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older adults. Accelerometer-derived light-intensity PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and steps per day were measured in (N = 4,652) 70-year-olds in Umeå, Sweden, during May 2012–November 2019. The MetS was assessed according to the American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The prevalence of MetS was 49.3%. Compared with the reference, the odds ratios for MetS in increasing quartiles of light-intensity PA were 0.91 (0.77–1.09), 0.75 (0.62–0.89), and 0.66 (0.54–0.80). For moderate to vigorous PA, the corresponding odds ratios were 0.79 (0.66–0.94), 0.67 (0.56–0.80), and 0.56 (0.46–0.67). For steps per day, the odds ratios were 0.65 (0.55–0.78), 0.55 (0.46–0.65), and 0.45 (0.36–0.55). In summary, this study shows that greater amounts of PA, regardless of intensity, are associated with lower odds of MetS. With the limitation of being an observational study, these findings may have implications for the prevention of MetS in older adults.

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Elaine M. Ori, Tanya R. Berry, and Lira Yun

It is unknown how lifelong digital media users such as young adult women perceive exercise information found online. A total of 141 women aged 18–30 years and residing in Canada were randomized to read either a factually incorrect or a factually correct blog article. Participants completed Go/No-Go tasks to measure automatically activated believability and evaluations and questionnaires to explicitly measure believability, affective evaluations, and intentions to exercise. Participants did not show evidence of automatically activated believability of the content found in either blog article. However, participants reading the factually correct article reported significantly greater explicit disbelief than those reading the factually incorrect article, though this did not predict intentions. Being factually correct may not be an important component of message believability. Exercise professionals need to remain aware of the content of popular online sources of information in an effort to curb misinformation.

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Rachel Cholerton, Helen Quirk, Jeff Breckon, and Joanne Butt

Adults aged 55+ years are most likely to be inactive, despite research suggesting that older adults experience multiple benefits when participating in physical activity and sport. Limited research focuses on long-term continuation of sport participation in this population, especially in “adapted sports” like walking football. This study explored the experiences of walking football maintenance in 55- to 75-year-old players. Semistructured interviews were conducted, with 17 older adults maintaining walking football play over 6 months. The inductive analysis revealed five higher-order themes representing maintenance influences and two higher-order themes relating to maintenance mechanisms (i.e., the conscious process by which players maintain). Influences when maintaining walking football included individual- and culture-level influences (e.g., perceived benefits of maintenance and ability acceptance). Maintenance mechanisms included cognitions and behaviors (e.g., scheduling sessions and redefining physical activity expectations). Findings highlight novel implications for policy and practice, which are important to consider when delivering walking football to older adults.

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Nicholas L. Holt, Helene Jørgensen, and Colin J. Deal

The purpose of this study was to identify and examine how sport parents engage in autonomy-supportive parenting in the family home setting. A total of 44 parents and children from 19 families were initially interviewed. Data from these families were profiled to identify seven families that adopted a highly autonomy-supportive parenting style. The seven families’ data were then examined using a theoretically focused qualitative analysis using the three dimensions of autonomy-supportive parenting. Sport parents engaged in autonomy support (vs. control) through flexible conversations and supporting decision making. The themes of boundary setting and establishing expectations based on values were indicative of structure. The authors found high levels of involvement across contexts. These findings depict the nature and types of social interactions in the family home that created an autonomy-supportive emotional climate, which often extended to sport, providing a foundation for future theoretical development and applied research in sport.

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Francisco Timbó de Paiva Neto, Gabriel Claudino Budal Arins, Eleonora d’Orsi, and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

This study aims to examine the association between neighborhood environment attributes and changes in walking for transportation among older adults. Longitudinal analysis was performed considering a population-based study (EpiFloripa Idoso), carried out in 2009–2010 with follow-up in 2013–2014. Changes in walking, obtained with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire during both waves were associated with data from the environment perception, evaluated using individual items from the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (baseline only) performing multinomial logistic regression. A total of 1,162 older adults (65.2% women, mean age = 73.7 years) participated. Those who reported the presence of parks and squares (OR = 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.70, 3.51]), sidewalks (OR = 1.66, 95% CI [1.03, 2.70]), crosswalks (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.05, 2.72]), illuminated streets (OR = 2.80, 95% CI [1.24, 6.33]), and safety for day walks (OR = 1.93, 95% CI [1.14, 3.24]) were more likely to remain active or become active when commuting (≥150 min/week). Older adults are more active in neighborhoods that present more favorable attributes regarding walking for transportation.

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Stephen Shannon, Garry Prentice, and Gavin Breslin

Basic psychological needs theory is limited by variable-centered studies focused on linear relationships between perceived needs-supportive/controlling coach behaviors. Therefore, latent profile analysis was used to determine if heterogenous profiles emerged from the interactive effects of needs-supportive and -controlling coach behaviors and the subsequent association with sport-specific mental health outcomes (i.e., burnout and subjective vitality). A total of 685 athletes took part (age = 23.39 years, male = 71%), and the latent profile analysis revealed five novel, diverse profiles, labeled as “supportive-developmental,” “needs-indifferent,” “overly critical,” “harsh-controlling,” and “distant-controlling” coaches. The profiles predicted significant mental health variance (adjusted R2 = .15–.24), wherein the “supportive-developmental” profile scored most favorably on 90% of the outcomes. The largest mean differences were observed against the “harsh-controlling” (n = 5), “overly critical” (n = 3), and “distant controlling” (n = 2) profiles. Overall, latent profile analysis revealed substantial nuance in athletes’ social contexts, predicting variance in mental health. Needs-supportive interventions are needed for “overly critical,” “harsh controlling,” and “distant controlling” athlete profiles.

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman, and Samuel R. Nyman

The objective of this study was to understand the experiences of people living with dementia and their informal carers’ taking part together (in dyads) in Tai Chi classes and the aspects influencing their adherence. Dyads’ experiences of taking part in Tai Chi classes for 20 weeks within the TACIT Trial were explored through class observations (n = 22 dyads), home-interviews (n = 15 dyads), and feedback. Data were inductively coded following thematic analysis. Tai Chi classes designed for people with dementia and their informal carers were enjoyable and its movements, easy to learn. Facilitators of participants' adherence were the socializing component and their enjoyment of the classes, whereas unexpected health problems were the main barrier. Finding the optimal level of challenge in the class setting might be crucial for people with dementia to feel satisfied with their progression over sessions and enable their continued participation.

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Scott W.T. McNamara, Matthew Shaw, Kylie Wilson, and Angela Cox

Educational podcasts are developed specifically for learning purposes. Preliminary research suggests that many college courses and practitioners regularly use educational podcasts and that this medium is a beneficial tool to use to supplement the learning process. However, there is limited scholarly work examining the use of educational podcasts within kinesiology fields. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the literature on the use of educational podcasts in the field of kinesiology. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist guided this investigation. Six databases were searched. Fourteen articles met the full inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were data-driven research articles, and three were practitioner articles. Much of the research identified lacked critical information related to research design, instrument development, and findings. Thus, the authors recommend that more rigorous research in this area be conducted to discern the impact of educational podcasts within the field of kinesiology.

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Karen E. Hancock, Paul Downward, and Lauren B. Sherar

Momentary feelings of pleasure and purpose can be sources of intrinsic motivation, but momentary purpose is rarely studied. Activities, contexts, and feelings of retired/semiretired adults (n = 67, aged 50–78 years) were captured using ecological momentary assessment. Participants provided 2,065 valid responses to six daily smartphone surveys for 7 days. Physical activity was measured by waist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer. Pleasure (measured by affective happiness) and purpose outcomes were regressed on activities, context, and potential confounding variables. Interactions between activities and contexts were explored. Participants were highly active: 98.5% met physical activity guidelines. Sedentary activities were negatively associated with sense of purpose, especially when indoors. However, social sedentary activities were positively associated with feelings of happiness. Active, social outdoor activities were positively associated with both outcomes. Less sedentary participants experienced greater happiness and purpose during all their activities. Context matters: active, social, and outdoor activities seem to be more appealing to older adults.

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Catherine Carty, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Fiona Bull, Juana Willumsen, Lindsay Lee, Kaloyan Kamenov, and Karen Milton

Background: The World Health Organization has released the first global public health guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior for people living with disability. This paper presents the guidelines, related processes, and evidence, and elaborates upon how the guidelines can support inclusive policy, practice, and research. Methods: Methods were consistent with the World Health Organization protocols for developing guidelines. Systematic reviews of the evidence on physical activity for health for people living with disability were appraised, along with a consideration of the evidence used to inform the general 2020 World Health Organization guidelines. Results: Evidence supported the development of recommendations for people living with disability, stressing that there are no major risks to engaging in physical activity appropriate to an individual’s current activity level, health status, and physical function, and that the health benefits accrued generally outweigh the risks. They also emphasize the benefits of limiting sedentary behavior. Conclusions: The guidelines mark a positive step forward for disability inclusion, but considerable effort is needed to advance the agenda. This paper highlights key considerations for the implementation of the new recommendations for people living with disability, in line with the human rights agenda underpinning the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 and allied policies.