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Paige Watkins, Anne-Marie Hill, Ian K. Thaver, and Elissa Burton

The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to investigate older adults’ perceptions of having a peer to encourage their participation in resistance training. The participants were recruited from a retirement village to undergo a 6-week resistance training program. Some participants attended a center; others participated in their home. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed thematically using a six-phase framework to obtain the participants’ perspectives about the peer support they received. The participants (n = 21) had divergent views about peer support, with some finding it enabling, while others did not find it helpful. Overall, the participants suggested that peer support could be beneficial if offered as a choice. Further research is needed to determine whether peer support assists in sustaining resistance training engagement among older adults when the aspect of choice is included.

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Paloma Flores-Barrantes, Greet Cardon, Iris Iglesia, Luis A. Moreno, Odysseas Androutsos, Yannis Manios, Jemina Kivelä, Jaana Lindström, Marieke De Craemer, and on behalf of the Feel4Diabetes Study Group

Background: Shared risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between parents at risk and their children, such as low physical activity levels, should be addressed to prevent the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of objectively measured step counts per day between parents at risk of developing T2DM and their 6- to 10-year-old children. Methods: The baseline data from the Feel4Diabetes study were analyzed. Dyads of children and one parent (n = 250, 54.4% girls and 77.6% mothers) from Belgium were included. Step counts per day during 5 consecutive days from parents and their children were objectively measured with ActiGraph accelerometers. Results: Adjusted linear regression models indicated that parents’ and children’s step counts were significantly associated during all days (β = 0.245), weekdays (β = 0.205), and weekend days (β = 0.316) (P ≤ .002 in all cases). Specifically, mother–daughter associations during all days and weekend days and father–son step counts during weekdays and when considering all days were significant. Conclusion: There is a positive association between step counts from adults at risk of developing T2DM and their children, especially in the mother–daughter and father–son dyads.

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Timothy M. Dasinger and Melinda A. Solmon

Physical activity participation is linked with many benefits including a reduction in anxiety; it is, however, also important to explore aspects of activity that incite anxiety. One way to investigate sources of anxiety in physical activity is to use the critical incident technique (CIT). The purpose of this study was to explore anxiety-inducing events in physical activity settings and to evaluate the impact on future behavior. A total of 122 participants (M = 21.23 ± 1.77 years) completed an online survey asking when a physical activity setting incited anxiety using the CIT. Four common sources of anxiety were evident in the responses: fragile self-beliefs, social interaction and the threat of negative social evaluation, competition, and a lack of knowledge or unfamiliarity with surroundings. Tenets from achievement goal theory can help to explain the incitement of anxiety and can help shape physical activity settings to be more inclusive and welcoming for all.

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David R. Axon and Niloufar Emami

This retrospective, cross-sectional database study aimed to identify characteristics associated with self-reported frequent exercise (defined as moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise for ≥30 min five times a week) in older U.S. (≥50 years) adults with pain in the past 4 weeks, using 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data and hierarchical logistic regression models. The variables significantly associated with frequent exercise included being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.507, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.318, 1.724]); non-Hispanic (AOR = 1.282, 95% CI [1.021, 1.608]); employed (AOR = 1.274, 95% CI [1.040, 1.560]); having no chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.576, 95% CI [1.094, 2.268]); having two chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.547, 95% CI [1.226, 1.952]); having no limitation versus having a limitation (AOR = 1.209, 95% CI [1.015, 1.441]); having little/moderate versus quite/extreme pain (AOR = 1.358, 95% CI [1.137, 1.621]); having excellent/very good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 2.408, 95% CI [1.875, 3.093]); and having good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 1.337, 95% CI [1.087, 1.646]). These characteristics may be useful to create personalized pain management protocols that include exercise for older adults with pain.

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Ashleigh M. Johnson, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Nalini Ranjit, Harold W. Kohl III, and Andrew E. Springer

Background: In response to conflicting findings for activity levels across sociodemographic groups, this study examined differences in adolescents’ in-school, out-of-school, and weekend physical activity (PA) by sociodemographic subgroups using representative US data. Methods: Data were obtained from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study. Multiple regression models compared in-school, out-of-school, and weekend PA by gender and race/ethnicity, and examined potential modification of associations by grade (middle vs high school) and socioeconomic status (lower vs higher). Results: Final analytic sample was 1413 adolescents (Mean age = 14.5 y, 51.3% female, 64.5% white). Compared with whites, in-school PA was significantly higher among blacks and those classified as other race/ethnicity for middle school (69.8 and 71.0, respectively, vs 66.4 min/d), and among Hispanics for high school (52.7 vs 48.4 min/d). Hispanics’ (vs whites’) out-of-school PA was significantly lower for middle school (63.7 vs 66.6 min/d), but higher for high school (54.0 vs 51.8 min/d). In-school PA was significantly higher among adolescents of lower (vs higher) socioeconomic status among males and Hispanics (all Ps < .05). Conclusions: The relation of race/ethnicity with PA varies by grade and time of day/week. Socioeconomic status findings contradict previously reported findings. Efforts to increase PA based on sociodemographic disparities should consider potential interaction effects.

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Simone Dohle, Mitch J. Duncan, and Tamara Bucher

Many exercise-based weight-loss interventions result in considerably less weight loss than predicted. One possible explanation could be that people have certain beliefs about the interplay of exercise and food that also influence their eating behavior, such as the belief that food is a reward for exercise. The current research outlines a systematic multiphase process to develop a psychometrically sound scale to assess these beliefs. In Study 1, regular exercisers (N = 520) completed an exploratory questionnaire on their beliefs related to diet and exercise. In Study 2 (N = 380), the factor structure of the newly developed scale was corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a test–retest (N = 166) was used to confirm reliability and stability. In sum, the Diet-Related Beliefs of Exercisers Scale with its four subscales (“Refrain from Eating,” “Food as Reward,” “Healthy Eating,” and “Nutritional Replenishment”) represents a valid and reliable measure of exercisers’ diet-related beliefs.

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Chungyi Chiu, Alicia R. Covello-Jones, Esteban Montenegro, Jessica M. Brooks, and Sa Shen

Background: Physical activity benefits have been extensively studied. However, the public health guidelines seem unclear about the relationships between steps and movements with healthy biomarkers for people with (PWD) and without disabilities (PWOD), respectively. While public health guidelines illustrate types of exercise (eg, running, swimming), it is equally important to provide data-driven recommended amounts of daily steps or movements to achieve health biomarkers and further promote a physically active lifestyle. Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 were used. The authors conducted sensitivity, specificity, and receiver-operating-characteristic curve analyses regarding cut points from ActiGraph 7164 of daily steps and movements for health biomarkers (eg, body mass index, cholesterol) in PWD (2178 participants) and PWOD (4414 participants). The authors also examined the dose relationships of steps, movements, and healthy biomarkers in each group. Results: The authors found significant differences in the cut points of daily steps and movement for health biomarkers in PWD and PWOD. For daily steps, cut points of PWD were ranged from 3222 to 8311 (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve [AUC] range = 0.52–0.93) significantly lower than PWOD’s daily steps (range = 5455–14,272; AUC = 0.58–0.87). For daily movement, cut points of PWD were ranged from 115,451 to 430,324 (AUC = 0.53–0.91) significantly lower than the PWOD’s daily movements (range = 215,288–282,307; AUC = 0.60–0.88). The authors found strong but different dose relationships of many biomarkers in each group. Conclusions: PWD need fewer daily steps or movement counts to achieve health biomarkers than PWOD. The authors provided data-driven, condition-specific recommendations on promoting a physically active lifestyle.

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Annegret Schlund, Anne K. Reimers, Jens Bucksch, Catherina Brindley, Carolin Schulze, Lorri Puil, Stephanie E. Coen, Susan P. Phillips, Guido Knapp, and Yolanda Demetriou

Background: Physical inactivity is often reported in youth and differs among boys and girls. The aim of this study is to assess sex/gender considerations in intervention studies promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in youth using a sex/gender checklist. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in August 2018 to identify all relevant controlled trials. Studies screened must have reported a quantified measure of physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, and identified participants by sex/gender at baseline. For evaluation of the sex/gender consideration, the authors used a sex/gender checklist developed by expert consensus. Results: The authors reviewed sex/gender considerations in all aspects of intervention development, implementation, and evaluation in 217 studies. Sex/gender aspects were only rudimentarily taken into account, most frequently during statistical analyses, such as stratification or interaction analysis. Conclusions: Sex/gender effects are not sufficiently reported. To develop guidelines that are more inclusive of all girls and boys, future interventions need to document sex/gender differences and similarities, and explore whether sex/gender influences different phases of intervention programs. The newly developed sex/gender checklist can hereby be used as a tool and guidance to adequately consider sex/gender in the several steps of intervention planning, implementation, and evaluation.

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Antonio Henrique Germano-Soares, Rafael M. Tassitano, Breno Quintela Farah, Aluísio Andrade-Lima, Marília de Almeida Correia, Aleš Gába, Nikola Štefelová, Pedro Puech-Leao, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel Grizzo Cucato, and Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias

Background: To examine the associations between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with walking capacity and the effects of reallocating time from SB to PA in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) using compositional data analysis. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 178 patients (34% females, mean age = 66 [9] y, body mass index = 27.8 [5.0] kg/m2, and ankle-brachial index = 0.60 [0.18]). Walking capacity was assessed as the total walking distance (TWD) achieved in a 6-minute walk test, while SB, light-intensity PA, and moderate to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) were measured by a triaxial accelerometer and conceptualized as a time-use composition. Associations between time reallocation among wake-time behaviors and TWD were determined using compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results: A positive association of MVPA with TWD (relative to remaining behaviors) was found in men (β ilr = 66.9, SE = 21.4, P = .003) and women (β ilr = 56.5, SE = 19.8; P = .005). Reallocating 30 minutes per week from SB to MVPA was associated with higher TWD in men (6.7 m; 95% confidence interval, 2.6–10.9 m) and women (4.5 m; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–7.5 m). Conclusions: The findings highlight, using a compositional approach, the beneficial and independent association of MVPA with walking capacity in patients with symptomatic PAD, whereas SB and light-intensity PA were not associated.