In two experiments, the authors investigated the influence of stress type (i.e., low/no stress, mental, and physical), level (i.e., low, moderate, and high), and Type × Level interaction on intuitive decision frequency, decision quality, and decision speed. Participants were exposed to mental (i.e., color word task, mental arithmetic) and/or physical stress (i.e., running) and then required to make decisions regarding videotaped offensive situations in basketball. Intuitive decision frequency, decision quality, and decision speed were measured for each trial. Study 1 used a between-subjects design whereby 20 participants were randomly assigned to each of the five stress conditions. Results revealed that moderate stress was associated with faster decisions. Study 2 replicated the design and aim of Study 1 using a within-subject methodology (n = 42). Results suggested that moderate stress levels produced better, faster decisions. In conclusion, moderate levels of stress were associated with the most desirable decision outcomes.
Teri J. Hepler and Matt Andre
Alison Divine, Tanya Berry, Wendy Rodgers, and Craig Hall
Background: Recent physical activity research is limited by intention–behavior discordance and is beginning to recognize the importance of automatic processes in exercise. The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of multidimensional exercise self-efficacy (SE), explicit–implicit evaluative discrepancies (EIEDs) for health, and appearance on the intention–behavior gap in exercise. Methods: A total of 141 middle-aged inactive participants (mean age = 46.12 [8.17] y) completed measures of intentions, SE, and explicit and implicit evaluations of exercise outcomes. The participants were classified as inclined actors (n = 107) if they successfully started the exercise program and inclined abstainers (n = 35) if they were not successful. Results: The inclined actors and abstainers did not differ on intentions to exercise; however, the inclined actors had higher coping SE and lower EIEDs for health. In addition, the coping SE (Exp [β] = 1.03) and EIEDs for health (Exp [β] = −0.405) were significant predictors of being an inclined actor. Conclusions: The interaction between explicit and implicit processes in regard to health motives for exercise appears to influence the successful enactment of exercise from positive intentions. As most physical activity promotion strategies focus on health as a reason to be active, the role of implicit and explicit evaluations on behavioral decisions to exercise may inform future interventions.
Jongbum Ko, Dalton Deprez, Keely Shaw, Jane Alcorn, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Corey Tomczak, Heather Foulds, and Philip D. Chilibeck
Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended for reducing blood pressure; however, recent studies indicate that stretching may also be effective. The authors compared 8 weeks of stretching versus walking exercise in men and women with high–normal blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension (ie, 130/85–159/99 mm Hg). Methods: Forty men and women (61.6 y) were randomized to a stretching or brisk walking exercise program (30 min/d, 5 d/wk for 8 wk). Blood pressure was assessed during sitting and supine positions and for 24 hours using a portable monitor before and after the training programs. Results: The stretching program elicited greater reductions than the walking program (P < .05) for sitting systolic (146  to 140  vs 139  to 142  mm Hg), supine diastolic (85  to 78  vs 81  to 82  mm Hg), and nighttime diastolic (67  to 65  vs 68  to 73  mm Hg) blood pressures. The stretching program elicited greater reductions than the walking program (P < .05) for mean arterial pressure assessed in sitting (108  to 103  vs 105  vs 105  mm Hg), supine (102  to 96  vs 99  to 99  mm Hg), and at night (86  to 83  vs 88  to 93  mm Hg). Conclusions: An 8-week stretching program was superior to brisk walking for reducing blood pressure in individuals with high–normal blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension.
Seungmin Lee, Adam McMahon, Isaac Prilleltensky, Nicholas D. Myers, Samantha Dietz, Ora Prilleltensky, Karin A. Pfeiffer, André G. Bateman, and Ahnalee M. Brincks
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Fun For Wellness (FFW) online intervention to increase well-being actions in adults with obesity in the United States in relatively uncontrolled settings. The FFW intervention is guided by self-efficacy theory. The study design was a large-scale, prospective, double-blind, and parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Data collection occurred at baseline, 30 days after baseline, and 60 days after baseline. Participants (N = 667) who were assigned to the FFW group (n FFW = 331) were provided with 30 days of 24-hr access to FFW. Supportive evidence was provided for the effectiveness of FFW in real-world settings to promote, either directly or indirectly, three dimensions of well-being actions: community, occupational, and psychological. This study shows that theory-based intervention may be effective in promoting well-being actions in adults with obesity in the United States.
Cheryl A. Coker and Brittney Herrick
The adoption of compensatory movement patterns occurs when limitations in mobility, stability, or motor control prevent proper motion from occurring. These dysfunctional movements may inhibit fundamental motor skill development and negatively influence perceived movement competence, impeding the development of physical literacy. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between functional movement and perceived and actual motor skill competence in young adolescents. Functional movement proficiency was determined using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™), which provides three variables of interest: (a) FMS™ total score, (b) number of asymmetries, and (c) number of movement pattern dysfunctions. Perceived physical competence was assessed through the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile. Finally, the Get Skilled: Get Active process-oriented motor skill assessment was used to evaluate vertical jump, kick, run, and overhand throw proficiency. A significant positive correlation between FMS™ total score and vertical jump performance was found. A positive relationship was also found between the number of asymmetries and overhand throw performance. The Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile constructs of body attractiveness and physical condition were positively associated with FMS™ total score, and physical condition was also shown to be inversely related to the number of movement pattern dysfunctions. Results suggest that functional movement may underpin movement competence and confidence.
Priya Patel, Seungmin Lee, Nicholas D. Myers, and Mei-Hua Lee
Missing data incidents are common in experimental studies of motor learning and development. Inadequate handling of missing data may lead to serious problems, such as addition of bias, reduction in power, and so on. Thus, this study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the past (2007) and present (2017) practices used for reporting and analyzing missing data in motor learning and development. For this purpose, the authors reviewed 309 articles from five journals focusing on motor learning and development studies and published in 2007 and 2017. The authors carefully reviewed each article using a six-stage review process to assess the reporting and analyzing practices. Reporting of missing data along with reasons for their presence was consistently high across time, which slightly increased in 2017. Researchers predominantly used older methods (mainly deletion) for analysis, which only showed a small increase in the use of newer methods in 2017. While reporting practices were exemplary, missing data analysis calls for serious attention. Improvements in missing data handling may have the merit to address some of the major issues, such as underpowered studies, in motor learning and development.
Anita Kulik, Ewelina Rosłoniec, Przemysław Madejski, Anna Spannbauer, Leszek Zguczyński, Piotr Mika, and Dorota Pilecka
The primary aim was to assess the test–retest reliability of an outdoor walking test with a global positioning system device in older women in a community setting. In addition, correlations between the suggested test and various tests recommended to evaluate muscle strength, walking speed, and self-perceived health status in older adults were studied. The study included 40 women aged 68 (SD = 5) years. The primary outcomes were total walked distance and mean walking speed. The secondary outcomes were lower-body strength, heart rate, speed in a 4-m walk test, and self-perceived health status. The intraclass correlation coefficients calculated for the total walked distance, mean walking speed, and mean heart rate were .94, .92, and .37, respectively. Thus, the suggested outdoor walking test with the application of a global positioning system device may be considered a reliable test tool, which can be recommended for the evaluation of walking ability among older women in a community setting.
The current study examined how a perceived neighborhood environment was associated with older adults’ walking activity and the experience of positive affect. Study sample comprised 10,700 older adults, aged 65+, sampled from the Health and Retirement Study 2014–2015 in the United States. Results indicated that neighborhood social cohesion was significantly predicting older adults’ walking and positive affect. It was also revealed that walking engagement significantly contributed to the measure of positive affect. However, perceived neighborhood physical disorder did not account for additional variance in walking and positive affect. Final structural model involved three latent factors—neighborhood social cohesion, walking, and positive affect—and the goodness-of-fit indices of the model indicated an acceptable fit to the sample data. Public health and physical activity intervention in the context of neighborhood environment should facilitate social integration and informal social support that the neighborhood creates.
Sophie E. Claudel, Kosuke Tamura, James Troendle, Marcus R. Andrews, Joniqua N. Ceasar, Valerie M. Mitchell, Nithya Vijayakumar, and Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley
There is no established method for processing data from commercially available physical activity trackers. This study aims to develop a standardized approach to defining valid wear time for use in future interventions and analyses. Sixteen African American women (mean age = 62.1 years and mean body mass index = 35.5 kg/m2) wore the Fitbit Charge 2 for 20 days. Method 1 defined a valid day as ≥10-hr wear time with heart rate data. Method 2 removed minutes without heart rate data, minutes with heart rate ≤ mean − 2 SDs below mean and ≤2 steps, and nighttime. Linear regression modeled steps per day per week change. Using Method 1 (n = 292 person-days), participants had 20.5 (SD = 4.3) hr wear time per day compared with 16.3 (SD = 2.2) hr using Method 2 (n = 282) (p < .0001). With Method 1, participants took 7,436 (SD = 3,543) steps per day compared with 7,298 (SD = 3,501) steps per day with Method 2 (p = .64). The proposed algorithm represents a novel approach to standardizing data generated by physical activity trackers. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of physical activity data sets.
Rasmus T. Larsen, Christoffer B. Korfitsen, Carsten B. Juhl, Henning Boje Andersen, Henning Langberg, and Jan Christensen
Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and the Nordic Physical Activity Questionnaire-short (NPAQ-short) when compared with objectively measured daily steps among older adults. Methods: Spearman’s ρ between IPAQ-SF and NPAQ-short and objectively measured steps using Garmin Vivofit 3 physical activity monitors. Results: A total of 54 participants were included. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ moderate physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time showed little or no correlation with daily steps. The NPAQ-short subscales’ vigorous PA, moderate PA, and MVPA showed little or no correlation. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ vigorous PA and walking showed fair correlation. Only the IPAQ-SF metabolic equivalent of task minutes showed moderate to good correlation with daily steps. The IPAQ-SF categories and NPAQ-short categorization of World Health Organization compliance were significantly different, but the magnitudes were small and distributions indicated problems with the categorization. Conclusion: The concurrent validity is low, as the scores did not reflect objectively measured daily steps.