Measuring ankle torque is of paramount importance. This study compared the test–retest reliability of the plantar flexion torque–generating capacity between older and younger men. Twenty-one older (68 ± 6 years) and 22 younger (25 ± 5 years) men were tested twice for maximal isometric plantar flexion. Peak torque (PT), rate of torque development, and contractile impulses (CI) were obtained from 0 to 50 ms (rate of torque development0–50; CI0–50) and from 100 to 200 ms (rate of torque development100–200; CI100–200). Typical error as the coefficient of variation (CVTE) and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to assess test–retest reliability. Student’s t test was applied to investigate systematic errors. The CVTE ratio was used for between-group comparisons. Only PT demonstrated acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ .75 and CV ≤ 10%). Older men demonstrated greater CVTE than younger men for PT (ratio = 2.24), but lesser for rapid torque (ratio ≤ 0.84). Younger men demonstrated systematic error for PT (6.5%) and CI100–200 (−8.9%). In conclusion, older men demonstrated greater variability for maximal torque output, but lesser for rapid torque.
Lucas Ugliara, James J. Tufano, Martim Bottaro, and Amilton Vieira
Yi-Ling Hu, Marian Keglovits, Emily Somerville, Makenna Snyder, and Susan Stark
The Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise Program (LiFE) is proven to have high adherence rates and can significantly reduce falls, but it has not yet been implemented for diverse older adults residing in urban medically underserved (MU) areas. An exploratory sequential mixed methods study was conducted to adapt LiFE and test the adapted program’s preliminary feasibility. Focus groups with MU older adults and service providers were conducted to identify modifications. The new adapted program, Diverse Older Adults Doing LiFE (DO LiFE), was then evaluated with older adults. Thematic analysis revealed health literacy and lack of racial representation as barriers to implementing LIFE in this population. The pilot study showed that DO LiFE was feasible with good retention (89%) and high adherence (81.27%) rates. DO LiFE demonstrated preliminary feasibility for diverse MU older adults. Researchers should proceed to larger studies for translating DO LiFE from research to the community.
Shannon Halloway, JoEllen Wilbur, Lynne T. Braun, Michael E. Schoeny, and Annabelle Santos Volgman
Background: Cognitive impairment disproportionately affects older women with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity (PA) and cognitive training (CT) may have synergistic effects in combined interventions. However, no combined intervention has targeted women with CVD or utilized a sustainable and preferable lifestyle approach. The purpose was to test feasibility and acceptability of the 24-week MindMoves program, a lifestyle intervention that combined PA and CT developed for older women with CVD. Methods: The PA component included goal setting with Fitbits and 5 behavioral group meetings. The CT component was evidence-based BrainHQ delivered on a tablet in three 30-minute weekly sessions. Participants included 10 women aged ≥65 years with CVD. Exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, regular PA, and CT use. Measures were feasibility (recruitment, attendance, participation, retention, and acceptability), change in PA (Fitbit min/steps), and change in cognitive function (NIH Toolbox®). Results: Of the 10 participants, 70% attended ≥4/5 group meetings, and overall attendance was 76%. Participants completed 2.3/3 CT sessions weekly. Participant retention was 100%. Over 90% of participants rated MindMoves with the highest levels of satisfaction. Participants had significant improvements in steps, light PA, and moderate PA, and there was a trend for improved cognition. Conclusions: Findings support testing MindMoves in an efficacy trial.
Pedro C. Hallal
Bonny Rockette-Wagner, Rachel G. Miller, Yvonne L. Eaglehouse, Vincent C. Arena, M. Kaye Kramer, and Andrea M. Kriska
Background: The importance of leisure sedentary behavior (LSB) change in diabetes prevention efforts is not well known. This study examines the relationships between changes in self-reported LSB and the primary intervention goals (weight and moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity [MVPA]) during a community-based translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (the Group Lifestyle Balance Program). Methods: A total of 322 adults at risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited from 3 community centers, a worksite, and military site. Community and worksite participants were randomized to immediate or delayed-delivery (control) intervention. All military site participants (n = 99) received immediate intervention. Logistic and linear generalized estimating equations were used to determine associations between LSB changes and weight-related outcomes and MVPA. Results: Results were obtained for 259 (80.4%) participants. The LSB decreased after 6 and 12 months (mean [95% confidence interval]: −25.7 [−38.6 to −12.8] and −16.1 [−28.2 to −3.9] min/d; both P < .05). Each 20-minute reduction in LSB was associated with a 5% increase in odds of meeting the weight-loss goal (6 mo: odds ratio = 1.05 [1.002 to 1.102]; P = .042; adjusted model including MVPA), but LSB was not related to changes in reported MVPA minutes or MVPA goal achievement. Conclusion: Within the context of existing lifestyle intervention programs, reducing sedentary behavior has the potential to contribute to weight loss separately from reported MVPA improvement.
María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Eva Clemente-Bosch, Isabel Peraita-Costa, Agustín Llopis-Morales, Isabel Martínez, and Agustín Llopis-González
Background: The practice of physical exercise during pregnancy has benefits for both the mother and baby. Currently, there is scientific evidence that supports the inclusion of a monitored physical activity program in the daily activities of pregnant women. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of the association between physical activity during pregnancy and the effects on the mother and the newborn. Methods: A systematic review of the literature, assessing each study using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, from different databases PubMed, Embase, or ScienceDirect, on the association between maternal physical activity and its effects on the mother and the newborn published from 2010 until 2018 was conducted. Results: About 25 studies were identified and divided into categories according to the health problems affecting the mother or newborn. It was found that 8% of all the studies received a grade B, 68% obtained a grade C, and the remaining 24% obtained less than a grade C. Improved cardiovascular function, decreased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and the limitation of weight gain are among the benefits to the mother with lower percentage of body fat, increased gestational age, and potentially improved neurodevelopment as benefits for the child. Conclusions: The realization of physical activity during pregnancy is supported by most of the studies reviewed. However, given the vulnerability of the studied populations, more studies on the association between physical activity and pregnancy are necessary.
Carolina M. Bejarano, Linda C. Gallo, Sheila F. Castañeda, Melawhy L. Garcia, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Krista M. Perreira, Carmen R. Isasi, Martha Daviglus, Linda Van Horn, Alan M. Delamater, Kimberly L. Savin, Jianwen Cai, and Jordan A. Carlson
Background: Total sedentary time and prolonged sedentary patterns can negatively impact health. This study investigated rates of various sedentary pattern variables in Hispanic/Latino youth. Methods: Participants were 956 youths (50.9% female) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Youth, a population-based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino 8- to 16-year-olds from 4 geographic regions in the United States (2012–2014). Total sedentary time and 10 sedentary pattern variables were measured through 1 week of accelerometer wear. Differences were examined by sociodemographic characteristics, geographic location, weekdays versus weekends, and season. Results: On average, youth were sedentary during 67.3% of their accelerometer wear time, spent 24.2% engaged in 10- to 29-minute sedentary bouts, and 7.2% in ≥60-minute bouts. 8- to 12-year-olds had more favorable sedentary patterns (less time in extended bouts and more breaks) than 13- to 16-year-olds across all sedentary variables. Sedentary patterns also differed by Hispanic/Latino background, with few differences across sex, household income, season, and place of birth, and none between weekdays versus weekends. Conclusions: Variables representing prolonged sedentary time were high among Hispanic/Latino youth. Adolescents in this group appear to be at especially high risk for unhealthy sedentary patterns. Population-based efforts are needed to prevent youth from engaging in increasingly prolonged sedentary patterns.
Laura Zlibinaite, Albertas Skurvydas, Sandra Kilikeviciene, and Rima Solianik
Background: The effect of globally recommended levels of physical activity on cognition and motor behavior is not completely understood. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to assess the effect of 300 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cognitive and motor performance among overweight and obese working-age women. Methods: Overweight and obese participants aged 38–56 years were randomized to either a control or an experimental group performing aerobic exercise at 50% to 60% of the peak oxygen consumption for a 2-month period. Changes in aerobic fitness, cardiac autonomic function, brain-derived neurotropic factor levels, and cognitive and motor performance were assessed. Results: Although aerobic exercise reduced body weight (P < .05) and improved peak oxygen consumption (P < .05), the brain-derived neurotropic factor levels and cognitive and motor performance remained unchanged. Heart rate and blood pressure decreased (P < .05), whereas heart rate variability indices were not affected. No significant correlations between changes in heart rate variability indices and cognition were observed. Conclusions: Two months of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreased sympathetic activity and improved cardiovascular fitness but had no impact on cognition or motor control among these middle-aged, overweight, and obese women.
Sebastien Pollet, James Denison-Day, Katherine Bradbury, Rosie Essery, Elisabeth Grey, Max Western, Fiona Mowbray, Kirsten A. Smith, Joanna Slodkowska-Barabasz, Nanette Mutrie, Paul Little, and Lucy Yardley
Purpose: This study explored participant views of a web-based physical activity intervention for older adults and examined how they resonate with the key principles that guided intervention development. Methods: Qualitative interviews were carried out with 52 older adults. A deductive qualitative analysis approach was taken, based around the intervention’s key principles. Results: Participants expressed mostly positive views of the intervention features, broadly confirming the appropriateness of the key principles, which were to: (a) encourage intrinsic motivation for physical activity, (b) minimize the risk of users receiving activity suggestions that are inappropriate or unsafe, (c) offer users choice regarding the activities they engage with and build confidence to undertake more activity, and (d) minimize the cognitive load and need to engage with the intervention website. The findings also identified ways in which content could be improved to further increase acceptability. Conclusion: This study illustrates how using the person-based approach has enabled the identification and implementation of features that older adults appreciate.
Hannah E. Kling, Emily M. D’Agostino, Ja’mese Booth, Eric Hansen, Emily Hawver, M. Sunil Mathew, and Sarah E. Messiah
This proof-of-concept study examined feasibility of assessing longitudinal changes in body mass index, strength, mobility, and cardiovascular health outcomes in older, racial/ethnic minority adults participating in a park-based physical activity program. Study feasibility was based on follow-through data collection procedures and ability to manage and implement data collection, enrollment, and repeated measures data collection in older adults (≥50 years; n = 380; 45% Hispanic, 41% non-Hispanic Black) over a 28-month period. Mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of program participation over time on participant cardiovascular and fitness outcomes and across poverty and age subgroups. Model estimates adjusted for individual-level sociodemographics showed improvements across each 4 month time point in arm strength (0.55 arm curl; 95% confidence interval [0.33, 0.77]) and systolic (−0.68 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [−1.22, −0.13]) and diastolic (−0.47 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [−0.79, −0.16]) blood pressure. An Age × Poverty interaction found greater improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure among younger participants living in low poverty (vs. older in higher poverty). Study of the longitudinal association between fitness class participation and health outcomes was feasible in park-based settings.