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Jacob Szeszulski, Kevin Lanza, Erin E. Dooley, Ashleigh M. Johnson, Gregory Knell, Timothy J. Walker, Derek W. Craig, Michael C. Robertson, Deborah Salvo, and Harold W. Kohl III

Background: Multiple models and frameworks exist for the measurement and classification of physical activity in adults that are applied broadly across populations but have limitations when applied to youth. The authors propose a conceptual framework specifically designed for classifying youth physical activity. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity Timing, How, and Setting (Y-PATHS) framework is a conceptualization of the when (timing), how, and where (setting) of children’s and adolescents’ physical activity patterns. The authors developed Y-PATHS using the design thinking process, which includes 3 stages: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. Results: The Y-PATHS includes 3 major components (timing, how, and setting) and 13 subcomponents. Timing subcomponents include (1) school days: in-school, (2) school days: out-of-school, and (3) nonschool days. How subcomponents include: (1) functional, (2) transportation, (3) organized, and (4) free play. Setting subcomponents include: (1) natural areas, (2) schools, (3) home, (4) recreational facilities, (5) shops and services, and (6) travel infrastructure. Conclusions: The Y-PATHS is a comprehensive classification framework that can help researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to better understand youth physical activity. Specifically, Y-PATHS can help to identify the domains of youth physical activity for surveillance and research and to inform the planning/evaluation of more comprehensive physical activity programming.

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Sara Birch, Torben Bæk Hansen, Maiken Stilling, and Inger Mechlenburg

Background: Pain catastrophizing is associated with pain both before and after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, it remains uncertain whether pain catastrophizing affects physical activity (PA). The aim was to examine the influence of pain catastrophizing on the PA profile, knee function, and muscle mass before and after a TKA. Methods: The authors included 58 patients with knee osteoarthritis scheduled for TKA. Twenty-nine patients had a score >22 on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and 29 patients had a score <11. PA was measured with a triaxial accelerometer preoperative, 3 months, and 12 months after TKA. Other outcome measures consisted of the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Results: The authors found no difference in PA between patients with a better/low or a worse/high score on the PCS, and none of the groups increased their mean number of steps/day from preoperative to 12 months postoperative. Patients with better/low PCS scores had higher/better preoperative scores on the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales (symptoms, pain, and activity of daily living), and they walked longer in the 6-min walk test. Further, they had lower body mass index, lower percent fat mass, and higher percent muscle mass than patients with worse/high PCS scores both before and after a TKA. Conclusion: Preoperative pain catastrophizing did not influence PA before or after a TKA. Although the patients improved substantially in self-reported knee function, their PA did not increase. This may be important to consider when the clinicians are informing the patients about the expected benefits from the operation.

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Isabel B. Rodrigues, Matteo Ponzano, Debra A. Butt, Joan Bartley, Zahra Bardai, Maureen C. Ashe, Philip D. Chilibeck, Lehana Thabane, John D. Wark, Jackie Stapleton, and Lora M. Giangregorio

Walking is a common activity among older adults. However, the effects of walking on health-related outcomes in people with low bone mineral density (BMD) are unknown. The authors included randomized controlled trials comparing walking to control in individuals aged ≥50 years with low BMD and at risk of fractures. The authors identified 13 randomized controlled trials: nine multicomponent interventions including walking, one that was walking only, and three Nordic walking trials. Most studies had a high risk of bias. Nordic walking may improve the Timed Up-and-Go values (1.39 s, 95% CI [1.00, 1.78], very low certainty). Multicomponent interventions including walking improved the 6-min walk test (39.37 m, 95% CI [21.83, 56.91], very low certainty) and lumbar spine BMD (0.01 g/cm2, 95% CI [0.00, 0.03], low certainty evidence). The effects on quality of life or femoral neck BMD were not significant. There were insufficient data on fractures, falls, or mortality. Nordic walking may improve physical functioning. The effects on other outcomes are less certain; one may need to combine walking with other exercises to be of benefit.

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Tayo Moss, Stephen Samendinger, Norbert L. Kerr, Joseph Cesario, Alan L. Smith, Deborah J. Johnson, and Deborah L. Feltz

The authors describe two research experiments exploring the influence of race on the Köhler motivation gain effect with exercise tasks. Experiment 1 tested whether partner racial dissimilarity affects individual performance. Experiment 2 created a team identity recategorization intervention to potentially counter the influence on performance observed in Experiment 1. White male participants were partnered with either a Black or Asian partner (Experiment 1) or with a Black partner utilizing team names and shirt colors as a team identity recategorization strategy (Experiment 2). Racially dissimilar dyads completed two sets of abdominal plank exercises with a Köhler conjunctive task paradigm (stronger partner; team performance outcome dependent upon the weaker-ability participant’s performance). The results of Experiment 1 suggest attenuation of the previously successful group motivation gain effect in the racially dissimilar condition. The simple recategorization strategy utilized in Experiment 2 appeared to reverse motivation losses under conjunctive-task conditions in racially dissimilar exercise dyads.

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Michael W. Supples, Madison K. Rivard, Rebecca E. Cash, Kirsten Chrzan, Ashish R. Panchal, and Henderson D. McGinnis

Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) professionals demonstrate low adherence to physical activity guidelines and experience a high prevalence of obesity and incidence of injury. The authors investigate the barriers to participating in physical activity among EMS professionals. Methods: The EMS professionals employed by 15 North Carolina EMS agencies were surveyed with validated items. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) of not meeting physical activity guidelines for each barrier to being active, controlling for age, sex, body mass index category, race/ethnicity, certification and education level, and work hours. Results: A total of 1367 EMS professionals were invited to participate, and 359 complete responses were recorded. Half of the respondents (48.2%) met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention physical activity guidelines. According to standard body mass index categories, 55.9% were obese. There were increased odds of not meeting physical activity guidelines for the following barriers: lack of energy (5.32, 3.12–9.09), lack of willpower (4.31, 2.57–7.22), lack of time (3.55, 2.12–5.94), social influence (3.02, 1.66–5.48), and lack of resources (2.14, 1.12–4.11). The barriers of fear of injury and lack of skill were not associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. Conclusion: Half of EMS professionals did not meet physical activity guidelines, and the majority were obese. Significant associations exist between several modifiable barriers and not meeting physical activity guidelines.

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Satoshi Matsuno, Takuya Yoshiike, Atsushi Yoshimura, Sachiyo Morita, Yusuke Fujii, Motoyasu Honma, Yuji Ozeki, and Kenichi Kuriyama

Although standing plantar perception training (SPPT) may improve standing postural stability, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. The authors investigated the relationship between regional cortical responses to SPPT using a balance pad and training outcomes in 32 older participants (mean ± SD:72.2 ± 6.0, range:60–87). Regional cortical activity was measured in the bilateral supplementary motor area, primary sensorimotor area, and parietal association area using near-infrared spectroscopy. Postural sway changes were compared before and after SPPT. Changes in two-point plantar discrimination and regional cortical activity during SPPT, associated with standing postural stability improvements, were examined using multiple regression and indicated improved standing postural stability after SPPT (p < .0001). Changes in right parietal association area activity were associated with standing postural stability improvements while barefoot. Overall, the results suggest that right parietal association area activation during SPPT plays a crucial role in regulating standing postural stability and may help develop strategies to prevent older adults from falling.

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Jennifer L. Etnier, Jarod C. Vance, and Aiko Ueno

Numerous studies show that exercise benefits memory and some show that acute exercise prior to encoding has larger benefits than exercise after encoding. This study was designed to investigate the effects of acute exercise on memory in middle-aged and older adults (M age = 64.71 years) and to explore the influence of the timing of the exercise on these effects. Using a within-subjects design, moderate-intensity exercise (20 min) was either not performed (control), performed before the task (exercise prior), or performed after the task (exercise post). Memory was assessed using the Rey Auditory Learning Verbal Test. For short- and long-term memory and learning, significantly more words were remembered in the exercise-prior condition than the others. For 24-hr recall, participants remembered significantly more words in the exercise-prior condition than exercise post, which was better than control. Exercise benefits memory for healthy middle-aged and older adults, with the greatest benefits when performed prior to encoding.

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Rona Macniven, Rachel Wilson, Tim Olds, and John Evans

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that Indigenous children have higher physical activity levels that non-Indigenous children, yet little is known of the factors that influence these levels or how they may be optimized. This study examines correlates of achieving ≥1 hour/day of physical activity among Indigenous Australian children aged 8–13 years. Methods: Data were collected through parental self-report in the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. Proportions of children achieving ≥1 hour/day physical activity, approximating the Australian aerobic physical activity recommendations, were calculated, and associations with sociodemographic, family composition, and movement-related factors were quantified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Half of the 1233 children achieved ≥1 hour/day physical activity. Children from families with low parental education and unemployment, remote residence, low socioeconomic status, and without a father in the household were more likely to meet the recommendations. Achieving ≥1 hour/day of physical activity was also associated with low levels of playing electronic games and total screen time. Conclusions: Sociodemographic correlates of physical activity among Indigenous Australian children run counter to those typically found in non-Indigenous Australian children. Further longitudinal examination of the predictors of these associations would provide a greater understanding of Indigenous physical activity determinants, to inform strategies to facilitate participation.

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Karin Weman Josefsson

Sweden has adopted a somewhat different approach to handle the corona pandemic, which has been widely debated both on national and international levels. The Swedish model involves more individual responsibility and reliance on voluntary civic liability than law enforcement, while common measures in other countries are based on more controlling strategies, such as restrictive lockdowns, quarantines, closed borders, and mandatory behavior constraints. This commentary aims to give a brief overview of the foundations of the Swedish model as well as a discussion on how and why it has been adopted in the Swedish society based on Swedish legislations, culture, and traditions. Finally, perspectives on how the Swedish model could be connected to the tenets of self-determination theory will be discussed.

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Marziyeh Arman, Lisa M. Barnett, Steven J. Bowe, Abbas Bahram, and Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Perceived Movement Skill Competence scales for Iranian children. In particular, the scales aligned with the second and third versions of the Test of Gross Motor Development and the active play skills. The total sample was 314 children aged 4–8 years (M age = 6.1 years, SD = 1.1). From this, a random sample of 74 were recruited for face validity. The data from the remaining 240 children were used to establish construct validity using Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling. The data from a second random subsample of 126 children were used to investigate Perceived Movement Skill Competence reliability using ordinal alpha coefficients and intraclass correlations coefficients. The majority of children correctly identified the skills and understood most of the pictures. Internal consistency was very good (from 0.81 to 0.95) for all scales and subscales. Test–retest reliability was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficient values above .85. For construct validity, the initial hypothesized models for three-factor (i.e., locomotor, object control, and play skills) and two-factor (i.e., locomotor and object control) models showed a reasonable fit. The pictorial scales for Perceived Movement Skill Competence are valid and reliable for Iranian young children.