The authors investigated relationships between emotions, coping, and resilience across two studies. In Study 1a, 319 athletes completed dispositional questionnaires relating to the aforementioned constructs. In Study 1b, 126 athletes from Study 1a repeated the same questionnaires 6 months later. In Study 2, 21 athletes were randomly allocated to an emotional (e.g., pleasant or unpleasant emotions) or control group and undertook a laboratory-based reaction-time task across three time points. Questionnaires and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after each performance with imagery-based emotional manipulations engendered during the second testing session. Partial longitudinal evidence of the broaden-and-build effects of pleasant emotions was found. Pleasant emotions may undo lingering cognitive resource losses incurred from previous unpleasant emotional experiences. In Study 2, pleasant and unpleasant emotions had an immediate and sustained psychophysiological and performance impact. Taken together, this research supports the application of broaden-and-build theory in framing emotional interventions for athletes.
Mark A. Thompson, Adam R. Nicholls, John Toner, John L. Perry, and Rachel Burke
Deborah L. Feltz
In this brief autobiography, I reflect on how my childhood and adolescent experiences influenced my decision to study the psychology of sport and physical activity. I describe how my research evolved over time, my contributions to the field, and the people who were influential in my career. Finally, I offer some suggestions for how the field of kinesiology, as a whole, might engage in the future.
Mark De Ste Croix, Michal Lehnert, Eliska Maixnerova, Francisco Ayala, and Rudolf Psotta
Purpose: To examine the influence of growth and maturation in the trajectory of stretch-shortening cycle capability. Method: Using a mixed-longitudinal design, absolute and relative leg stiffness and reactive strength index (RSI) were measured 3 times over a 3-year period in 44 youth team-sport players. Maturation was determined as maturity offset and included within the Bayesian inference analysis as a covariate alongside chronological age. Results: Irrespective of age and maturation, there was no change in absolute leg stiffness, however relative leg stiffness decreased over time. Maturation and age reduced this decline, but the decline remained significant (Bayesian factor  = 5097, model averaged R 2 = .61). The RSI increased over time and more so in older more mature youth players (Bayesian factor  = 9.29e 8, model averaged R 2 = .657). Conclusion: In youth players who are at/post peak height velocity, relative leg stiffness appears to decline, which could have an impact on both performance and injury risk. However, RSI increases during this period, and these data reinforce that leg stiffness and RSI reflect different components of stretch-shortening cycle capability. Practitioners should consider these differences when planning training to maximize stretch-shortening cycle capability during growth and maturation in athletes on the developmental performance pathway.
Kerri Z. Delaney, Leandra Spatari, Mélanie Henderson, Sylvia Santosa, and Marie-Eve Mathieu
Background: To examine substrate oxidation in prepubertal and early pubertal children as a function of body weight, body composition, and sex during an exhaustive cycling test. Methods: This study included 320 children in prepubertal and early puberty (Tanner stage 1 or 2; n = 188 males) who completed a minimum of 4 stages (2–5 min/stage) of an adapted version of the McMaster exhaustive exercise protocol on an upright cycle ergometer. Substrate utilization, relative to individual VO2peak, was determined using VO2 and VCO2 data, obtained with breath-by-breath gas analysis during exercise. Results: Both peak (mg/kg lean body mass·min) and submaximal lipid oxidation (mg/kg lean body mass·min) were highest (P < .01) in children with healthy weight (HW), then overweight, and lowest in obese (OB). Both females with HW (compared with males with HW) and females with OB (compared with males with OB) had higher (P < .01) peak and submaximal lipid oxidation. In children with OB, fat-free mass correlated positively (P < .01) with submaximal lipid oxidation (r = .50). In contrast, in children with HW and overweight, fat-free mass correlated positively (P < .01) with carbohydrate oxidation (r = .52 and r = .47, respectively). Conclusion: Obesity during childhood may alter substrate oxidation during exercise. These results may have implications in the implementation of exercise programs in prepubertal or early puberty to control adiposity.
Thaís Amanda Reia, Roberta Fernanda da Silva, André Mourão Jacomini, Ana Maria Guilmo Moreno, Letícia Perticarra Ferezin, Sherliane Carla Pereira, Riccardo Lacchini, Thiago José Dionísio, Carlos Ferreira Santos, and Anderson Saranz Zago
Background: This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of physical exercise on nitric oxide concentration and blood pressure (BP) in older adults with different levels of training status (TS) and verified the influence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms on these variables. Methods: A total of 145 older adults were divided into good TS (G1) and weak TS (G2). Participants were subjected to a 40-minute treadmill walk (40%–60% of maximum oxygen consumption) with BP measurements and blood collections for plasma nitrite and oxidative stress biomarkers at pretest and posttest moments. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated-measures with Sidak post hoc test (P < .05) and multivariate linear analysis. Results: After acute exercise, G2 showed an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (P = .008), and both groups showed an increase in systolic BP (P < .001). Polymorphisms 894G > T and intron 4b/a had no association with nitrite and BP. However, −786T > C polymorphism showed an association with reduced systolic and diastolic BP (TT genotype) and increased diastolic BP (TC genotype). Higher TS level was also associated with lower BP. Conclusion: The maintenance of good TS levels may have a protective effect on cardiovascular risks regardless of the genetic profile.
Amy E. Mendham, Julia H. Goedecke, Melony C. Fortuin-de Smidt, Lindokuhle Phiri, Louise Clamp, Jeroen Swart, Gosia Lipinska, and Dale E. Rae
Background: Improving sleep quality and reducing depressive symptoms may be target mechanisms for intervention-based research aimed at reducing cardiometabolic risk in low-income communities. This study assessed the effects of exercise training on depressive symptoms and sleep in obese women for a low socioeconomic community. The secondary aim explored associations between changes in depressive symptoms and sleep with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Participants were randomized into exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 15) groups. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of combined resistance and aerobic training (40–60 min, 4 d/wk), and the control group maintained habitual diet and activity. Preintervention and postintervention testing included questionnaires on symptoms of depression, psychological distress, and sleep quality. Sedentary time, peak oxygen consumption, body mass index, and insulin sensitivity were measured objectively. Sleep duration (accelerometry) was assessed at preintervention and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Exercise training reduced depressive symptoms (P = .002) and improved sleep quality (P < .001) and sleep efficiency (P = .005). Reduced depressive symptoms were associated with improved peak oxygen consumption (rho = −.600, P < .001), and improved sleep quality correlated with reduced sedentary time (rho = .415, P = .018). Conclusion: These results highlight the potential for community-based exercise interventions to simultaneously address multiple comorbidities in a low-income setting.
Paige Watkins, Anne-Marie Hill, Ian K. Thaver, and Elissa Burton
The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to investigate older adults’ perceptions of having a peer to encourage their participation in resistance training. The participants were recruited from a retirement village to undergo a 6-week resistance training program. Some participants attended a center; others participated in their home. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed thematically using a six-phase framework to obtain the participants’ perspectives about the peer support they received. The participants (n = 21) had divergent views about peer support, with some finding it enabling, while others did not find it helpful. Overall, the participants suggested that peer support could be beneficial if offered as a choice. Further research is needed to determine whether peer support assists in sustaining resistance training engagement among older adults when the aspect of choice is included.
Paloma Flores-Barrantes, Greet Cardon, Iris Iglesia, Luis A. Moreno, Odysseas Androutsos, Yannis Manios, Jemina Kivelä, Jaana Lindström, Marieke De Craemer, and on behalf of the Feel4Diabetes Study Group
Background: Shared risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between parents at risk and their children, such as low physical activity levels, should be addressed to prevent the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of objectively measured step counts per day between parents at risk of developing T2DM and their 6- to 10-year-old children. Methods: The baseline data from the Feel4Diabetes study were analyzed. Dyads of children and one parent (n = 250, 54.4% girls and 77.6% mothers) from Belgium were included. Step counts per day during 5 consecutive days from parents and their children were objectively measured with ActiGraph accelerometers. Results: Adjusted linear regression models indicated that parents’ and children’s step counts were significantly associated during all days (β = 0.245), weekdays (β = 0.205), and weekend days (β = 0.316) (P ≤ .002 in all cases). Specifically, mother–daughter associations during all days and weekend days and father–son step counts during weekdays and when considering all days were significant. Conclusion: There is a positive association between step counts from adults at risk of developing T2DM and their children, especially in the mother–daughter and father–son dyads.
Timothy M. Dasinger and Melinda A. Solmon
Physical activity participation is linked with many benefits including a reduction in anxiety; it is, however, also important to explore aspects of activity that incite anxiety. One way to investigate sources of anxiety in physical activity is to use the critical incident technique (CIT). The purpose of this study was to explore anxiety-inducing events in physical activity settings and to evaluate the impact on future behavior. A total of 122 participants (M = 21.23 ± 1.77 years) completed an online survey asking when a physical activity setting incited anxiety using the CIT. Four common sources of anxiety were evident in the responses: fragile self-beliefs, social interaction and the threat of negative social evaluation, competition, and a lack of knowledge or unfamiliarity with surroundings. Tenets from achievement goal theory can help to explain the incitement of anxiety and can help shape physical activity settings to be more inclusive and welcoming for all.
David R. Axon and Niloufar Emami
This retrospective, cross-sectional database study aimed to identify characteristics associated with self-reported frequent exercise (defined as moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise for ≥30 min five times a week) in older U.S. (≥50 years) adults with pain in the past 4 weeks, using 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data and hierarchical logistic regression models. The variables significantly associated with frequent exercise included being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.507, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.318, 1.724]); non-Hispanic (AOR = 1.282, 95% CI [1.021, 1.608]); employed (AOR = 1.274, 95% CI [1.040, 1.560]); having no chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.576, 95% CI [1.094, 2.268]); having two chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.547, 95% CI [1.226, 1.952]); having no limitation versus having a limitation (AOR = 1.209, 95% CI [1.015, 1.441]); having little/moderate versus quite/extreme pain (AOR = 1.358, 95% CI [1.137, 1.621]); having excellent/very good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 2.408, 95% CI [1.875, 3.093]); and having good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 1.337, 95% CI [1.087, 1.646]). These characteristics may be useful to create personalized pain management protocols that include exercise for older adults with pain.