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Amy E. Mendham, Julia H. Goedecke, Melony C. Fortuin-de Smidt, Lindokuhle Phiri, Louise Clamp, Jeroen Swart, Gosia Lipinska, and Dale E. Rae

Background: Improving sleep quality and reducing depressive symptoms may be target mechanisms for intervention-based research aimed at reducing cardiometabolic risk in low-income communities. This study assessed the effects of exercise training on depressive symptoms and sleep in obese women for a low socioeconomic community. The secondary aim explored associations between changes in depressive symptoms and sleep with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Participants were randomized into exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 15) groups. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of combined resistance and aerobic training (40–60 min, 4 d/wk), and the control group maintained habitual diet and activity. Preintervention and postintervention testing included questionnaires on symptoms of depression, psychological distress, and sleep quality. Sedentary time, peak oxygen consumption, body mass index, and insulin sensitivity were measured objectively. Sleep duration (accelerometry) was assessed at preintervention and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Exercise training reduced depressive symptoms (P = .002) and improved sleep quality (P < .001) and sleep efficiency (P = .005). Reduced depressive symptoms were associated with improved peak oxygen consumption (rho = −.600, P < .001), and improved sleep quality correlated with reduced sedentary time (rho = .415, P = .018). Conclusion: These results highlight the potential for community-based exercise interventions to simultaneously address multiple comorbidities in a low-income setting.

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Paige Watkins, Anne-Marie Hill, Ian K. Thaver, and Elissa Burton

The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to investigate older adults’ perceptions of having a peer to encourage their participation in resistance training. The participants were recruited from a retirement village to undergo a 6-week resistance training program. Some participants attended a center; others participated in their home. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed thematically using a six-phase framework to obtain the participants’ perspectives about the peer support they received. The participants (n = 21) had divergent views about peer support, with some finding it enabling, while others did not find it helpful. Overall, the participants suggested that peer support could be beneficial if offered as a choice. Further research is needed to determine whether peer support assists in sustaining resistance training engagement among older adults when the aspect of choice is included.

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Paloma Flores-Barrantes, Greet Cardon, Iris Iglesia, Luis A. Moreno, Odysseas Androutsos, Yannis Manios, Jemina Kivelä, Jaana Lindström, Marieke De Craemer, and on behalf of the Feel4Diabetes Study Group

Background: Shared risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between parents at risk and their children, such as low physical activity levels, should be addressed to prevent the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of objectively measured step counts per day between parents at risk of developing T2DM and their 6- to 10-year-old children. Methods: The baseline data from the Feel4Diabetes study were analyzed. Dyads of children and one parent (n = 250, 54.4% girls and 77.6% mothers) from Belgium were included. Step counts per day during 5 consecutive days from parents and their children were objectively measured with ActiGraph accelerometers. Results: Adjusted linear regression models indicated that parents’ and children’s step counts were significantly associated during all days (β = 0.245), weekdays (β = 0.205), and weekend days (β = 0.316) (P ≤ .002 in all cases). Specifically, mother–daughter associations during all days and weekend days and father–son step counts during weekdays and when considering all days were significant. Conclusion: There is a positive association between step counts from adults at risk of developing T2DM and their children, especially in the mother–daughter and father–son dyads.

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Timothy M. Dasinger and Melinda A. Solmon

Physical activity participation is linked with many benefits including a reduction in anxiety; it is, however, also important to explore aspects of activity that incite anxiety. One way to investigate sources of anxiety in physical activity is to use the critical incident technique (CIT). The purpose of this study was to explore anxiety-inducing events in physical activity settings and to evaluate the impact on future behavior. A total of 122 participants (M = 21.23 ± 1.77 years) completed an online survey asking when a physical activity setting incited anxiety using the CIT. Four common sources of anxiety were evident in the responses: fragile self-beliefs, social interaction and the threat of negative social evaluation, competition, and a lack of knowledge or unfamiliarity with surroundings. Tenets from achievement goal theory can help to explain the incitement of anxiety and can help shape physical activity settings to be more inclusive and welcoming for all.

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David R. Axon and Niloufar Emami

This retrospective, cross-sectional database study aimed to identify characteristics associated with self-reported frequent exercise (defined as moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise for ≥30 min five times a week) in older U.S. (≥50 years) adults with pain in the past 4 weeks, using 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data and hierarchical logistic regression models. The variables significantly associated with frequent exercise included being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.507, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.318, 1.724]); non-Hispanic (AOR = 1.282, 95% CI [1.021, 1.608]); employed (AOR = 1.274, 95% CI [1.040, 1.560]); having no chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.576, 95% CI [1.094, 2.268]); having two chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.547, 95% CI [1.226, 1.952]); having no limitation versus having a limitation (AOR = 1.209, 95% CI [1.015, 1.441]); having little/moderate versus quite/extreme pain (AOR = 1.358, 95% CI [1.137, 1.621]); having excellent/very good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 2.408, 95% CI [1.875, 3.093]); and having good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 1.337, 95% CI [1.087, 1.646]). These characteristics may be useful to create personalized pain management protocols that include exercise for older adults with pain.

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Ashleigh M. Johnson, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Nalini Ranjit, Harold W. Kohl III, and Andrew E. Springer

Background: In response to conflicting findings for activity levels across sociodemographic groups, this study examined differences in adolescents’ in-school, out-of-school, and weekend physical activity (PA) by sociodemographic subgroups using representative US data. Methods: Data were obtained from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study. Multiple regression models compared in-school, out-of-school, and weekend PA by gender and race/ethnicity, and examined potential modification of associations by grade (middle vs high school) and socioeconomic status (lower vs higher). Results: Final analytic sample was 1413 adolescents (Mean age = 14.5 y, 51.3% female, 64.5% white). Compared with whites, in-school PA was significantly higher among blacks and those classified as other race/ethnicity for middle school (69.8 and 71.0, respectively, vs 66.4 min/d), and among Hispanics for high school (52.7 vs 48.4 min/d). Hispanics’ (vs whites’) out-of-school PA was significantly lower for middle school (63.7 vs 66.6 min/d), but higher for high school (54.0 vs 51.8 min/d). In-school PA was significantly higher among adolescents of lower (vs higher) socioeconomic status among males and Hispanics (all Ps < .05). Conclusions: The relation of race/ethnicity with PA varies by grade and time of day/week. Socioeconomic status findings contradict previously reported findings. Efforts to increase PA based on sociodemographic disparities should consider potential interaction effects.

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Shaun Abbott, Goshi Yamauchi, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Castiglioni, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

Purpose: The study aimed to (1) accurately examine longitudinal relationships between maturity status and both technical skill indices and performance in Australian male (N = 64) age-group Front-crawl swimmers (10–15 y) and (2) determine whether individual differences in maturation influenced relationships between technical skill level and swimming performance. Methods: A repeated-measures design was used to assess maturity status and performance on 200-m Front-crawl trial across 2 competition seasons (2018–2020). Assessments were made on 3 to 5 occasions (median = 3) separated by approximately 4 months. Average horizontal velocity and stroke frequency were used to calculate technical skill indices, specifically stroke index, and arm propelling efficiency. Relationships between variables were assessed using linear mixed models, identifying fixed, and random effect estimates. Results: Curvilinear trends best described significant longitudinal relationships between maturity status with horizontal velocity (F = 10.33 [1, 233.77]; P = .002) and stroke index (F = 5.55 [1, 217.9]; P = .02) during 200-m Front-crawl trials. Maturity status was not significantly related to arm propelling efficiency (P = .08). However, arm propelling efficiency was an independent predictor of Front-crawl velocity (F = 55.89 [1, 210.45]; P < .001). Conclusions: Maturity status predicted assessment of swimmer technical skill (stroke index) and swimming performance. However, technical skill accessed via arm propelling efficiency was independent of maturation and was predictive of performance. Maturity status influences performance evaluation based on technical skill and velocity. Findings highlight the need to account for maturation and technical skill in age-group swimmers to better inform swimmer evaluation.

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Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alejandro Lopez-Valenciano, Jose Vicente Garcia-Tormo, David Cabello-Manrique, and Juan García-López

Purpose: To analyze the influence of playing 2 consecutive prolonged badminton matches on the shoulder strength and range of motion (ROM) of young players. Methods: Sixteen elite junior badminton players (12 males and 4 females; mean (SD): age 16.2 [0.8] years, body mass 63.5 [6.6] kg, height 173.2 [6.3] cm) participated in a cross-sectional study. Shoulder internal (IR)/external rotation (ER) ROM and IR/ER strength measures were conducted before and after 2 consecutive prolonged (ie, 35 min) matches and 12 hours after the second match. Results: After consecutive matches, IR strength of the dominant side and ER strength of the dominant and nondominant sides (effect size [ES] = 0.20–0.57) were reduced. Shoulder total ROM of the dominant side was decreased (ES = 0.80), while on the nondominant side, IR (ES = 0.66) was also decreased. After 12 hours, results showed decreased values in the IR/ER strength of the dominant side (ES = 0.36–1.00), as well as ER of both dominant and nondominant sides (ES = 0.30–0.59). IR ROM of the nondominant side (ES = 0.69) was also decreased. Conclusion: Present results showed that 2 consecutive matches on the same day with brief rest periods led to significant impairments in shoulder strength and ROM levels. These data can potentially elucidate the need for shoulder-specific training and recovery strategies prior to or during competitions.

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Simone Dohle, Mitch J. Duncan, and Tamara Bucher

Many exercise-based weight-loss interventions result in considerably less weight loss than predicted. One possible explanation could be that people have certain beliefs about the interplay of exercise and food that also influence their eating behavior, such as the belief that food is a reward for exercise. The current research outlines a systematic multiphase process to develop a psychometrically sound scale to assess these beliefs. In Study 1, regular exercisers (N = 520) completed an exploratory questionnaire on their beliefs related to diet and exercise. In Study 2 (N = 380), the factor structure of the newly developed scale was corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a test–retest (N = 166) was used to confirm reliability and stability. In sum, the Diet-Related Beliefs of Exercisers Scale with its four subscales (“Refrain from Eating,” “Food as Reward,” “Healthy Eating,” and “Nutritional Replenishment”) represents a valid and reliable measure of exercisers’ diet-related beliefs.