Terese Wilhelmsen and Marit Sørensen
This systematic review examines research published from 2009 to 2015 on inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have used a stakeholder approach as a framework for organizing and discussing the results. The searches yielded 535 studies, of which 112 were included. The systematic review outlines which stakeholder perspectives received the most attention, the main themes and findings, the methodological trends that governed the research contribution, and the country of data collection. The main findings indicated that perspectives of pre- and in-service teachers and studies of attitudes still dominate the research contributions. The strengths and limitations of the research conducted to date highlight that several other perspectives need to be discussed. Especially important is seeking information from children with disabilities themselves. Other barriers and facilitators perceived by those actively involved in the inclusion process need to be sought.
Shannon Titus Dieringer, David L. Porretta, and Diane Sainato
The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of music (music with lyrics versus music with lyrics plus instruction) relative to on-task behaviors in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a gross motor setting. Five preschool children (4 boys, 1 girl) diagnosed with ASD served as participants. A multiple baseline across participants in conjunction with an alternating-treatment design was used. For all participants, music with lyrics plus instruction increased on-task behaviors to a greater extent than did music with lyrics. The results of our study provide a better understanding of the role of music with regard to the behaviors of young children with ASD.
Amelia Ferro, Guadalupe Garrido, Jorge Villacieros, Javier Pérez, and Lena Grams
Physical condition and an optimized diet are relevant to enhance performance and recovery. The diet composition and meal frequency of eleven elite wheelchair basketball players were estimated using a 3-day food-weighing diary in two months during the precompetitive-period. Performance was determined through a 20 m sprint test. The players consumed 4.2 ± 0.8 meals/day in May and 4.5 ± 0.9 meals/day in June, resulting in total energy intakes of 2492 ± 362 kcal/d and 2470 ± 497 kcal/d, respectively. The macronutrient distribution was 3.8 ± 1.3 g/kg carbohydrates, 1.7 ± 0.6 g/kg protein, and 36 ± 5% of energy derived from fat in May, and 4.2 ± 1.9 g/kg carbohydrates, 1.5 ± 0.5 g/kg protein and 32 ± 5% of energy derived from fat in June. The maximum velocity of the sprint test improved from 4.77 ± 0.31 m/s in May to 5.19 ± 0.23 m/s in June. Our results revealed carbohydrate intake below and fat intake above recommendations, but improvements of dietary patterns. Further nutritional advice is necessary to ensure health and performance improvements.
Michael S. Jeffress and William J. Brown
Power soccer (or powerchair football), the first competitive team sport for users of motorized wheelchairs, is receiving increased attention among people with disabilities, healthcare professionals, and academics. The present study provides a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 34 American power soccer athletes. Participant observation and in-depth interviews with 11 female and 23 male athletes were conducted between 2007 and 2013. Results indicate that involvement in power soccer provides participants with an increased sense of empowerment, acquisition of social capital, and psychosocial benefits, including a deep satisfaction of the desire to participate in competitive sports and an opportunity to be independent. Implications of these findings for improving the quality of life of people with physical disabilities and for future research are discussed.
Justin A. Haegele, Ali S. Brian, and Donna Wolf
Our purpose in this study was to document the criterion validity of the Fitbit Zip for measuring steps taken by youth with visual impairments (VI). A secondary purpose was to determine whether walking pace, mounting position, or relative position to the user’s mobility device impacted the criterion validity of the device. Fourteen adolescent-aged individuals (M age = 15.4; 13 male and 1 female) with VI participated in this study. Participants wore four Fitbit Zips at different mounting positions and completed two, 2-min walking trials while the lead investigator hand tallied steps. Measurement validity was analyzed using absolute percent error (APE), intraclass correlation coefficients estimated level of conformity, and paired samples t tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes assessed APE relative to mounting positions. Results supported the use of the Fitbit Zip during regular-paced walking; however, caution must be used during activities exceeding regular walking speeds, as devices consistently underestimated steps.
ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall, Byungmo Ku, Megan MacDonald, Justin Davidson, Megan MacDonald, Seo Hee Lee, and E. Kipling Webster
Domingo Garcia-Villamisar, John Dattilo, and Carmen Muela
Effects of B-Active2 (Enjoy Being Physically Active by Walking Safely: A Leisure Education Program) on the risk of falls, stress, and well-being of a sample of 44 adults with ASD (ages M = 36.88; SD =7.31) were examined using a controlled experimental trial. Given the relationship between physical activity and stress reduction to individual well-being, B-Active2 was developed as a multidimensional program involving leisure education and walking designed to create an enjoyable context in which adults with ASD learn about and engage in physical activity. All participants were evaluated on balance, gait, well-being, and stress at baseline and at 1 month postintervention by a team of therapists blind to study objectives. There was a significant difference postintervention on balance, F(1, 40) = 55.63, p < .001, η2 = .58; gait, F(1, 40) = 23.58, p < .001, η 2 =.37; and well-being, F(1, 40) = 34.16, p < .001, η 2 = .47). No statistically significant effect was found for level of stress reduction, F(1, 40) = 0.27, n.s. Results of this study support the conclusion that B-Active2 is a viable leisure education program that promotes physical activity of adults with ASD and has positive effects on their well-being and risk of falls.